Archivos de etiquetas: marihuana

Check Your Stash: Full list covering recalls for pesticides

Will 2015 be remembered as the year legal marijuana first encountered — and eventually figured out — its pesticide problem?

The national conversation surrounding pesticide application on cannabis blew up this year. The hot topic has made headlines in Oregon, Washington, New Hampshire, California and elsewhere — but nowhere was the conversation more heated and involved than in Colorado, the first U.S. state to start selling legal cannabis.

Lucas Targos, the head grower at L'Eagle, sprays marijuana plants in the cultivation room with neem oil, which helps combat spider mites and mildew and has been approved for use by the state in certain products. (Cyrus McCrimmon, The Denver Post)
Lucas Targos, the head grower at L’Eagle, sprays marijuana plants in the cultivation room with neem oil, which helps combat spider mites and mildew and has been approved for use by the state in certain products. (Cyrus McCrimmon, The Denver Post)

It began after more than 100,000 plants were put on hold because of pesticide concerns. Inspections were stepped-up in cultivation facilities. A lot of questions were asked — but not a lot of them had answers. The industry reacted to the changing landscape — but the industry also flexed its political muscle in an effort to delay state and city efforts to enact pesticide regulations.

My colleagues and I at The Denver Post and The Cannabist commissioned independent tests on marijuana concentrates, and the results — which showed high levels of banned pesticides in one popular brand, Mahatma — spurred a Denver Department of Environmental Health investigation thatrecalled Mahatma products, and now many others.

The pesticides-and-pot conversations in Colorado served as a gateway to other related issues. The Post learned that Colorado’s attorney general was investigating several marijuana businesses overconcerns the word “organic” in their names or advertising might be misleading to consumers. Colorado’s former agriculture commissioner said the marijuana industry “was the biggest obstacle we had” in devising any effective pesticide regulation. And more than two months after their first pot recall, Denver health officials started requiring marijuana companies that recall products tainted with unapproved pesticides to use their websites and social media accounts to alert consumers, who weren’t returning many of the recalled products, The Post learned.

A screen grab from the press release announcing EdiPure's first recall of marijuana-infused edibles shows how customers can find out if any of the products they've purchased have been recalled via batch numbers. (Denver Department of Environmental Health)
A screen grab from the press release announcing EdiPure’s first recall of marijuana-infused edibles shows how customers can find out if any of the products they’ve purchased have been recalled via batch numbers. (Denver Department of Environmental Health)

Even though no sicknesses have yet been attributed to the use of these banned pesticides, a pair of marijuana users in Colorado — one of them a medical-card holder with a brain tumor — have sued the state’s largest pot grower for allegedly using a potentially dangerous pesticide on the pot they later purchased. The state proposed new rules that would further restrict which pesticides can be used to grow marijuana. Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper issued an executive order telling state agencies that any marijuana grown with unapproved pesticides is a threat to public safety and should be removed from commerce and destroyed. TheU.S. Environmental Protection Agency put the onus on the makers of pesticides to prove their safety.

And meanwhile, the recalls of marijuana and pot products keep rolling. Because each recall of pesticide-tainted cannabis involves long lists of items associated with often-lengthy batch numbers, The Cannabist has compiled all of the available information in one place for readers concerned about the purity of their pot. So below you’ll find our reporting on each recall — as well as the city of Denver’s press releases on the recalls, which contain exact information to help users identify any tainted pot and cannabis products they might have.

Do you have pesticide-peppered pot in your stash? Find out now — and we will keep this list updated.

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Kamba Rembe: el pueblo paraguayo que planta y odia a la marihuana

A finales de mayo, la Secretaría Antidrogas de Paraguay (SENAD) descubrió 13 toneladas de marihuana en un carguero navegando a través del río Paraguay. El capitán del barco, alertado de que un fiscal lo escoltaba, se suicidó antes de llegar al muelle.

La marihuana decomisada del navío “salió de acá”, explica a VICE News un campesino que hace 17 años siembra, cosecha y vende cannabis en Kamba Rembe, una colonia agrícola de 4.600 habitantes perdida entre caminos de tierra roja en el departamento de San Pedro a menos de 200 kilómetros de la extensa frontera seca del Paraguay con Brasil.

El labriego dice que en el pueblo, nueve de cada diez consiguen su renta del cannabis. Este cultivador llegó a cosechar cinco hectáreas él solo. Siembra 10 kilos de semillas por hectárea y vende en su casa a cinco euros el quilo de marihuana prensada.

El ‘ladrillo’ lo llevan a la capital, Asunción. Pero también a las ciudades de Capitán Bado y Pedro Juan Caballero — fronterizas con Brasil —, a Encarnación — límite con Argentina en el Río Paraná — y hasta Uruguay o Chile.

En San Pedro, siete de cada diez hombres se dedican a la agricultura, la silvicultura, la caza, la agricultura o la ganadería. Kamba Rembe no es la excepción. Pero la falta de tecnología, de compradores honestos, el bajo precio de la mandioca y las extensiones de soja, donde trabajan pocas personas, no ayudan al desarrollo del campesinado.

La mandioca, uno de los orgullos de la colonia agrícola fundada hace 25 años, se vende a siete mil guaraníes, es decir a un euro, la bolsa de 70 quilos. Hace diez años casi la mitad de la población de San Pedro tenía alguna necesidad básica insatisfecha en su vivienda.

Uno de cada tres sampedranos estaba subocupado o desempleado. En esa época creció la plantación de cannabis. “Era la única forma de pagar a las financieras y los bancos”, destaca cerveza en mano un agricultor de cara curtida por el sol, nariz enrojecida por la bebida y uñas negras en manos ásperas.

La agricultura tradicional apenas aporta ingresos a los labriegos locales por lo que muchos han apostado por el cultivo de la marihuana. (Imagen por Guillermo Garat)

Primero la yerba mate dejó de ser rentable, luego el precio del algodón se fue al piso. La tecnificación del cultivo de maíz, tabaco y mandioca también golpeó a los agricultores locales. Apostaron por el sésamo y volvieron a perder. El precio bajó y los compradores les pagaron — les pagan — lo que quieren. Muchos pequeños productores volvieron a endeudarse.

“Los pequeños productores cosechan 1200 kilos de maíz por hectárea. Mientras que su vecino, que produce tecnificado, tira 8000. Además, en la chacra campesina hay plagas y enfermedades. El cannabis se ‘culturalizó’. Es como cualquier otra planta. Es el cultivo más rentable”, se lamenta a VICE News Marcelino Araní, educador popular de la Escuela Técnica Agraria de Kamba Rembe. “Hace tiempo que el cannabis está a la vista de todos, incluso de las autoridades”, destaca.

El jornalero rural, que en Paraguay trabaja con machete y azada, puede ganar hasta nueve euros por día durante la cosecha de cannabis que no requiere la última tecnología, sino manos. En el distrito de general Resquín, al que pertenece Kamba Rembe, jóvenes y adultos cultivan cannabis como en otras localidades de San Pedro y de los vecinos Amambay, Canindeyú, Concepción, departamentos fronterizos con Brasil donde el cultivo comenzó a finales de los años sesenta.

Abastecer al mercado suramericano

La demanda de cannabis paraguayo en Brasil es altísima. La Autoridad Fiscalizadora Internacional (JIFE), estima que el 80 por ciento de lo que se fuma en Brasil es paraguayo. También es el que se consume en el Mercosur, Chile y últimamente cruza el Chaco desértico hasta Bolivia.

La JIFE calcula que 6.000 hectáreas anuales se plantan en Paraguay. Las autoridades de la SENAD hablan de 7.000 hectáreas.

La última incursión de la SENAD en Kamba Rembe, se anunció en las radios locales. Los campesinos corrieron de las parcelas. “No buscamos detener al eslabón más débil. Cuando erradicamos es ostensible. Nos contactamos con las radios del interior del país”, explica a VICE News, Luis Rojas, director de la SENAD.

Era finales de agosto, época de cosecha, faltaban pocos días para cortar el “buche” [la flor]. Las hojas ya habían amarilleado y comenzaban a caer.

Los cultivadores sembraron una variedad llamada “mentolada”, que por sus cualidades organolépticas parece autofloreciente, se cosecha en tres meses y fue introducida en los últimos tres años.

Marihuana prensada de San Pedro. (Imagen por Guillermo Garat)

Con la clásica planta paraguaya, una sativa que alcanza dos metros sin esfuerzo, se obtienen unos 800 kilos por hectárea. Con la nueva semilla se pueden obtener hasta 2.000 y se cosecha tres veces por año. Además, el cannabis cada vez se esconde menos y convive con la huerta familiar, por lo que se ve y se huele.

Aquella última semana de agosto la policía antidroga no fue tan brutal como antes cuando, además de violencia de género, practicaban el robo de gallinas, chanchos y/o saqueaban las heladeras de un jornalero y su familia muerta de miedo.

Los niños no están tranquilos en la escuela cuando escuchan las aspas de los helicópteros o ven los camiones militares alborotar la calma pueblerina. “Los procedimientos eran muy temidos. Se creaba toda una psicosis, un problema psicológico para las criaturas”, rememora a VICE News René Noguera, director de la Escuela Técnica Agraria de Kamba Rembe.

Esta vez, la policía especializada entró en ciertas casas sin orden judicial. El cuerpo de elite robó cigarros, cerveza, carne y otros víveres a una despensa del pueblito. Fueron prepotentes, pero no golpearon, ni se llevaron a nadie detenido.

Los ‘antidrogas’ estuvieron unos días en la zona. A puro machetazo eliminaron 120 hectáreas de cannabis en unos días de trabajo. Es decir destrozaron el sustento económico de casi todo el pueblo.

Gabriel Dos Santos, dirigente del Comité de Desarrollo Sustentable de Kamba Rembe, tiene un tractor para dar vuelta la tierra de sus vecinos. Pero hace un mes que no lo mueve porque el pueblo está paralizado.”Tenés que ver lo que es el hambre, cuando hay fuego en la olla pero no hay carne”, lamenta a VICE News.

La realidad parece darle la razón. El 2 de septiembre, unos días después de la operación policial, 3.000 campesinos se reunieron en una hora para elaborar un plan de desarrollo y presentarlo al gobierno. Pararon el pueblo, llamaron a los medios de comunicación que llegaron con fotógrafos, micrófonos y cámaras.

Gabriel Dos Santos en su chacra de Kamba Rembe. Fue uno de los niños que ocuparon hace 25 años las tierras de la colonia. Hoy es su principal dirigente. (Imagen por Guillermo Garat)

El 3 de setiembre pararon el pueblo, educación, transporte y otros trabajos. Fue la primera comunidad que le puso cara al cultivo de marihuana.

El gobierno tuvo que responder. Una delegación gubernamental de veinte personas de traje y corbata se sentó en los pupitres de un aula. Enfrente, los campesinos con ropas teñidas de rojo como su tierra, hablaban de pasar a los cítricos, hortalizas, forestación, lechería y hasta gusanos de seda.

Los agricultores caminería, invernaderos, reforestar 800 hectáreas, tecnificar el cultivo de mandioca, innovar con la stevia e impulsar la caña de azúcar. También quieren aprender a gestionar las cuencas hídricas y proteger el suelo. Además anotaron necesidades en salud, vivienda y educación.

Después de la primera reunión, consiguieron 40 mil plantines de tomates, aunque faltan herramientas, tractores, media sombra y fertilizantes, están tratando de vender esa producción a un supermercado.

De sustento a ‘hierba maldita’

En Kamba Rembé nadie quiere plantar marihuana, le dicen “la hierba maldita”. Tampoco les interesa el debate de la legalización. El pueblo no quiere más marihuana, pero está en la encrucijada.

“Cuando termina un rubro económico hay dos opciones. O subsistir hasta vender la tierra o plantar cannabis. Si no el campesino vende la tierra y emigra. Así va desapareciendo la colonia”, destaca a VICE News el ingeniero agrónomo Noguera que trabaja en Kamba Rembe desde los años noventa.

Hubo un compromiso con el gobierno: habrá ayuda si terminan el cultivo de cannabis. El pueblo en asamblea, aceptó. El cultivador que llegó a cosechar cinco hectáreas él solo ya no planta. No quiere involucrar a la comunidad.

Noguera dice que algunos cultivadores podrían emigrar del pueblo, como pasó con Lima, un poblado que expulsó a los campesinos del cannabis que hace quince años se instalaron en Kamba Rembe y alrededores.

La marihuana “está mal, porque un joven puede perder su vida, su futuro y hasta su familia. Quedás mal con la sociedad, ya no te verá como un adolescente normal. Ya no te darán más trabajo. Quedarás aparte. No directamente, pero ya no te brindarán más oportunidades”, dice serio y sin gesticular a VICE News, Ángel Darío Villalba.

El joven de 19 años gusta de las hortalizas y sobre todo del tomate. Próximamente regresará de la Escuela Técnica Agrícola de Kamba Rembe.

Ángel Darío quiere un trabajo “digno” para su futuro cercano. “Si trabajás técnicamente”, la horticultura “puede dar más que el cannabis”, al menos así lo cree.

State-by-State Guide to Cannabis Advertising Regulations

As the cannabis industry continues to grow at a rapid pace, it can feel overwhelming to keep up-to-date with the constantly-changing federal and state regulations. Advertising regulations are especially strict, as many marketing platforms restrict or outright ban cannabis advertisements due to the substance’s federal status.

We put together a state-by-state guide to cannabis advertising regulations that should help cannabis businesses adhere to the guidelines set forth by both the state they’re operating in as well as any states in which they want to advertise. Be sure to check back constantly as we update this guide to reflect new changes and restrictions.

Click on a state to jump down to its list of cannabis advertising regulations:

 

Alaska Arizona California Colorado Connecticut
Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii
Illinois Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan
Minnesota Montana Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey
New Mexico New York Oregon Rhode Island Texas
Vermont Washington

 

Alaska

Final advertising regulations for retail cannabis are to be determined. For more information, please refer to the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services Division of Public Health.

 

Arizona

There are currently no advertising regulations for medical marijuana dispensaries in Arizona. For more information, please refer to the Rules & Statutes for the Arizona Medical Marijuana Program.

 

California

Refer to section 2525.5. of the Medical Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act:

(a) A person shall not distribute any form of advertising for physician recommendations for medical cannabis in California unless the advertisement bears the following notice to consumers:

NOTICE TO CONSUMERS: The Compassionate Use Act of 1996 ensures that seriously ill Californians have the right to obtain and use cannabis for medical purposes where medical use is deemed appropriate and has been recommended by a physician who has determined that the person’s health would benefit from the use of medical cannabis. Recommendations must come from an attending physician as defined in Section 11362.7 of the Health and Safety Code. Cannabis is a Schedule I drug according to the federal Controlled Substances Act. Activity related to cannabis use is subject to federal prosecution, regardless of the protections provided by state law.

(b) Advertising for attending physician recommendations for medical cannabis shall meet all of the requirements in Section 651. Price advertising shall not be fraudulent, deceitful, or misleading, including statements or advertisements of bait, discounts, premiums, gifts, or statements of a similar nature.

 

Colorado

Refer to the Colorado Retail Marijuana Regulations:

R 1102 – Advertising General Requirement: No Deceptive, False or Misleading Statements

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in Advertising that is deceptive, false, or misleading. A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not make any deceptive, false, or misleading assertions or statements on any product, any sign, or any document provided to a consumer.

R 1104 –Advertising: Television

A. Television Defined. As used in this rule, the term “television” means a system for transmitting visual images and sound that are reproduced on screens, and includes broadcast, cable, on-demand, satellite, or internet programming. Television includes any video programming downloaded or streamed via the internet.

B. Television Advertising. A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not utilize television Advertising unless the Retail Marijuana Establishment has reliable evidence that no more than 30 percent of the audience for the program on which the Advertising is to air is reasonably expected to be under the age of 21.

R 1105 –Advertising: Radio

A. Radio Defined. As used in this rule, the term “radio” means a system for transmitting sound without visual images, and includes broadcast, cable, on-demand, satellite, or internet programming. Radio includes any audio programming downloaded or streamed via the internet.

B. Radio Advertising. A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in radio Advertising unless the Retail Marijuana Establishment has reliable evidence that no more than 30 percent of the audience for the program on which the Advertising is to air is reasonably expected to be under the age of 21.

R 1106 –Advertising: Print Media

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in Advertising in a print publication unless the Retail Marijuana Establishment has reliable evidence that no more than 30 percent of the publication’s readership is reasonably expected to be under the age of 21.

R 1107 –Advertising: Internet

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in Advertising via the internet unless the Retail Marijuana Establishment has reliable evidence that no more than 30 percent of the audience for the internet web site is reasonably expected to be under the age of 21. See also Rule R 1114 – Pop-Up Advertising.

R 1108 – Advertising: Targeting Out-of-State Persons Prohibited.

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in Advertising that specifically targets Persons located outside the state of Colorado.

R 1109 – Signage and Advertising: No Safety Claims Because Regulated by State Licensing Authority

No Retail Marijuana Establishment may engage in Advertising or utilize signage that asserts its products are safe because they are regulated by the State Licensing Authority.

R 1110– Signage and Advertising: No Safety Claims Because Tested by a Retail Marijuana Testing Facility

A Retail Marijuana Establishment may advertise that its products have been tested by a Retail Marijuana Testing Facility, but shall not engage in Advertising or utilize signage that asserts its products are safe because they are tested by a Retail Marijuana Testing Facility

R 1111– Signage and Advertising: Outdoor Advertising

A. Local Ordinances. In addition to any requirements within these rules, a Retail Marijuana Establishment shall comply with any applicable local ordinances regulating signs and Advertising.

B. Outdoor Advertising Generally Prohibited. Except as otherwise provided in this rule, it shall be unlawful for any Retail Marijuana Establishment to engage in Advertising that is visible to members of the public from any street, sidewalk, park or other public place, including Advertising utilizing any of the following media: any billboard or other outdoor general Advertising device; any sign mounted on a vehicle, any hand-held or other portable sign; or any handbill, leaflet or flier directly handed to any person in a public place, left upon a motor vehicle, or posted upon any public or private property without the consent of the property owner.

C. Exception. The prohibitions set forth in this rule shall not apply to any fixed sign that is located on the same zone lot as a Retail Marijuana Establishment and that exists solely for the purpose of identifying the location of the Retail Marijuana Establishment and otherwise complies with any applicable local ordinances

R 1112– Signage and Advertising: No Content That Targets Minors

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not include in any form of Advertising or signage any content that specifically targets individuals under the age of 21, including but not limited to cartoon characters or similar images.

R 1113 – Advertising: Advertising via Marketing Directed Toward Location-Based Devices

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in Advertising via marketing directed towards location-based devices, including but not limited to cellular phones, unless the marketing is a mobile device application installed on the device by the owner of the device who is 21 year of age or older and includes a permanent and easy opt-out feature.

R 1114 – Pop-Up Advertising

A Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not utilize unsolicited pop-up Advertising on the internet.

R 1115 – Advertising: Event Sponsorship

A Retail Marijuana Establishment may sponsor a charitable, sports, or similar event, but a Retail Marijuana Establishment shall not engage in Advertising at, or in connection with, such an event unless the Retail Marijuana Establishment has reliable evidence that no more than 30 percent of the audience at the event and/or viewing Advertising in connection with the event is reasonably expected to be under the age of 21.

 

Connecticut

Refer to the State of Connecticut Regulation of the Department of Consumer Protection Concerning the Palliative Use of Medical Marijuana:

Sec. 21a-408-66. Marketing: prohibited conduct, statements and illustrations; commissioner review of advertisements

(a) There shall be no direct or indirect cooperative advertising between or among two or more of the following: a producer, dispensary facility personnel, or physician where such advertising has the purpose or effect of steering or influencing patient or caregiver choice with regard to their selection of a physician, dispensary or marijuana product.

(b) An advertisement for marijuana or any marijuana product shall not contain:

(1) Any statement that is false or misleading in any material particular or is otherwise in violation of the Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act, section 42-110b et seq., of the Connecticut General Statutes;

(2) any statement that falsely disparages a competitor’s products;

(3) any statement, design, or representation, picture or illustration that is obscene or indecent;

(4) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration that encourages or represents the use of marijuana for a condition other than a debilitating medical condition;

(5) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration that encourages or represents the recreational use of marijuana;

(6) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration related to the safety or efficacy of marijuana unless supported by substantial evidence or substantial clinical data;

(7) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration portraying anyone under the age of 18, objects suggestive of the presence of anyone under the age of 18, or contains the use of a figure, symbol or language that is customarily associated with anyone under the age of 18;

(8) any offer of a prize or award to a qualifying patient, primary caregiver or physician related to he purchase of marijuana or a certification for the use of marijuana; or

(9) any statement that indicates or implies that the product or entity in the advertisement has been approved or endorsed by the commissioner, department, the State of Connecticut or any person or entity associated with the State of Connecticut.

(c) Any advertisement for marijuana or a marijuana product shall be submitted to the commissioner at the same time as, or prior to, the dissemination of the advertisement.

(d) The submitter of the advertisement shall provide the following information in addition to the advertisement itself:

(1) A cover letter that:

(A) Provides the following subject line: Medical marijuana advertisement review Package for a proposed advertisement for [Brand Name];

(B) Provides a brief description of the format and expected distribution of the proposed advertisement; and

(C) Provides the submitter’s name, title, address, telephone number, fax number, and email address;

(2) An annotated summary of the proposed advertisement showing every claim being made in the advertisement and which references support each claim;

(3) Verification that a person identified in an advertisement as an actual patient or health care practitioner is an actual patient or health care practitioner and not a model or actor;

(4) Verification that a spokesperson who is represented as a real patient is indeed an actual patient;

(5) Verification that an official translation of a foreign language advertisement is accurate;

(6) Annotated references to support disease or epidemiology information, cross-referenced to the advertisement summary; and

(7) A final copy of the advertisement, including a video where applicable, in an acceptable format.

(e) Advertising packages that are missing any of the elements in subsection (g) of this section, or that fail to follow the specific details for submissions, shall be considered incomplete. If the department receives an incomplete package, it shall so notify the submitter.

(f) The commissioner may:

(1) Require a specific disclosure be made in the advertisement in a clear and conspicuous manner if the commissioner determines that the advertisement would be false or misleading without such a disclosure; or

(2) Make recommendations with respect to changes that are:

(A) Necessary to protect the public health, safety and welfare; or

(B) Consistent with dispensing information for the product under review.

 

(3) If appropriate and if information exists, recommend statements for inclusion in the advertisement to address the specific efficacy of the drug as it relates to specific disease states, disease symptoms and population groups.

Sec. 21a-408-67. Marijuana advertising; requirements for true statements and fair balance

(a) All advertisements for marijuana or marijuana products that make a statement relating to side effects, contraindications and effectiveness shall present a true statement of such information. When applicable, advertisements broadcast through media such as radio, television, or other electronic media shall include such information in the audio or audio and visual parts of the presentation.

(b) False or misleading information in any part of the advertisement will not be corrected by the inclusion of a true statement in another distinct part of the advertisement.

(c) An advertisement does not satisfy the requirement that it present a “true statement” of information relating to side effects, consequences, contraindications, and effectiveness if it fails to present a fair balance between information relating to side effects, consequences, contraindications and effectiveness in that the information relating to effectiveness is presented in greater scope, depth, or detail than is the information relating to side effects, consequences and contraindications, taking into account all implementing factors such as typography, layout, contrast, headlines, paragraphing, white space, and any other techniques apt to achieve emphasis.

(d) An advertisement is false, lacking in fair balance, or otherwise misleading if it:

(1) Contains a representation or suggestion that a marijuana strain, brand or product is better, more effective, useful in a broader range of conditions or patients or safer than other drugs or treatments including other marijuana strains or products, unless such a claim has been demonstrated by substantial evidence or substantial clinical experience;

(2) Contains favorable information or opinions about a marijuana product previously regarded as valid but which have been rendered invalid by contrary and more credible recent information;

(3) Uses a quote or paraphrase out of context or without citing conflicting information from the same source, to convey a false or misleading idea;

(4) Uses a study on individuals without a debilitating medical condition without disclosing that the subjects were not suffering from a debilitating medical condition;

(5) Uses data favorable to a marijuana product derived from patients treated with a different product or dosages different from those approved in Connecticut;

(6) Contains favorable information or conclusions from a study that is inadequate in design, scope, or conduct to furnish significant support for such information or conclusions; or

(7) Fails to provide adequate emphasis for the fact that two or more facing pages are part of the same advertisement when only one page contains information relating to side effects, consequences and contraindications.

(e) No advertisement may be disseminated if the submitter of the advertisement has received information that has not been widely publicized in medical literature that the use of the marijuana product or strain may cause fatalities or serious damage.

Sec. 21a-408-68. Marijuana marketing; advertising at a dispensary facility; advertising prices

(a) A dispensary facility shall:

(1) Restrict external signage to a single sign no larger than 16 X 18 inches;

(2) Not illuminate a dispensary facility sign advertising a marijuana product at any time;

(3) Not advertise marijuana brand names or utilize graphics related to marijuana or paraphernalia on the exterior of the dispensary facility or the building in which the dispensary facility is located; and

(4) Not display marijuana and paraphernalia so as to be clearly visible from the exterior of a dispensary facility.

 

(b) A producer shall not advertise the price of its marijuana except that it may make a price list available to a dispensary facility.

 

Delaware

Refer to the Delaware Medical Marijuana Act:

(k) No person may advertise medical marijuana sales in print, broadcast, or by paid in-person solicitation of customers. This shall not prevent appropriate signs on the property of the registered compassion center, listings in business directories including phone books, listings in trade or medical publications, or the sponsorship of health or not-for-profit charity or advocacy events.

(l) A registered compassion center shall not share office space with nor refer patients to a physician.

(m) A physician shall not refer patients to a registered compassion center or registered designated caregiver, advertise in a registered compassion center, or, if the physician issues written certifications, hold any financial interest in a registered compassion center.

 

District of Columbia

Refer to the District of Columbia Municipal Regulations for the Medical Marijuana Program:

5105.2 A medical marijuana certification provider shall include the following subjects in its education training program; which shall be submitted to the Department for approval:

(f) Advertising, promotion, and marketing of medical marijuana;

CHAPTER 58 ADVERTISING

5800 SIGN ADVERTISING

5800.1 Advertisements relating to the prices of medical marijuana shall not be displayed in the window of a registered establishment.

5800.2 Advertisements relating to medical marijuana shall not be displayed on the exterior of any window or on the exterior or interior of any door.

5800.3 No sign advertising medical marijuana on the exterior or visible from the exterior of any registered establishment or elsewhere in the District shall be illuminated at any time.

 

Florida

Advertising regulations for Florida authorized distribution centers are to be determined. For more information, please refer to the Compassionate Medical Cannabis Act of 2014.

 

Georgia

Georgia’s medical marijuana advertising regulations are to be determined. For more information, please refer to House Bill 1.

 

Hawaii

Final dispensary regulations are to be determined. For more information, please visit the State of Hawaii Department of Health Medical Marijuana Registry Program.

 

Illinois

Refer to the Rules for the Administration of the Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Pilot Program:

TITLE 68: PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS
CHAPTER VII: DEPARTMENT OF FINANCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL REGULATION
SUBCHAPTER b: PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS
PART 1290 RULES FOR ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMPASSIONATE USE OF MEDICAL CANNABIS PILOT PROGRAM
SECTION 1290.455 DISPENSARY ADVERTISEMENTS

 

Section 1290.455 Dispensary Advertisements

 

a) No registered dispensing organization shall place or maintain, or cause to be placed or maintained, an advertisement of cannabis or a cannabis-infused product in any form or through any medium:

 

1) Within 1,000 feet of the perimeter of a school grounds, playground, recreation center or facility, child care center, public park or library, or any game arcade admission to which is not restricted to persons age 21 years or older;

2) On or in a public transit vehicle or public transit shelter; or

3) On or in a publicly-owned or-operated property.

 

b) This Section does not apply to a noncommercial message.

 

Maine

There are currently no advertising regulations for registered dispensaries or caregivers in Maine. For more information, please refer to the Rules Governing the Maine Medical Use of Marijuana Program.

 

Maryland

Final medical marijuana regulations are to be determined. For more information, please refer to the Maryland Laws & Regulations FAQ.

 

Massachusetts

Refer to the Implementation of an Act for the Humanitarian Medical Use of Marijuana:

(L) Marketing and Advertising Requirements

(1) A Registered Marijuana Dispensary (RMD) may develop a logo to be used in labeling, signage, and other materials. Use of medical symbols, images of marijuana, related paraphernalia, and colloquial references to cannabis and marijuana are prohibited from use in this logo.

(2) RMD external signage shall not be illuminated except for a period of 30 minutes before sundown until closing, and shall comply with local requirements regarding signage, provided however that the Department may further specify minimum signage requirements. Neon signage is prohibited at all times.

(3) A RMD shall not display on the exterior of the facility advertisements for marijuana or any brand name, and may only identify the building by the registered name.

(4) A RMD shall not utilize graphics related to marijuana or paraphernalia on the exterior of the RMD or the building in which the RMD is located.

5) A RMD shall not advertise the price of marijuana, except that it shall provide a catalogue or a printed list of the prices and strains of marijuana available at the RMD to registered qualifying patients and personal caregivers upon request.

(6) Marijuana, Marijuana Infused Products (MIPs), and associated products shall not be displayed or clearly visible to a person from the exterior of a RMD.

(7) A RMD shall not produce any items for sale or promotional gifts, such as T-shirts or novelty items, bearing a symbol of or references to marijuana or MIPs, including the logo of the RMD.

(8) All advertising materials and materials produced by a RMD and disseminated pursuant to 105 CMR 725.105(K) or (L) are prohibited from including:

(a) Any statement, design, representation, picture, or illustration that encourages or represents the use of marijuana for any purpose other than to treat a debilitating medical condition or related symptoms;

(b) Any statement, design, representation, picture, or illustration that encourages or represents the recreational use of marijuana;

(c) Any statement, design, representation, picture, or illustration related to the safety or efficacy of marijuana unless supported by substantial evidence or substantial clinical data with reasonable scientific rigor, which shall be made available upon the request of a registrant or the Department; or

(d) Any statement, design, representation, picture, or illustration portraying anyone under 18 years of age.

(9) Inside the RMD, all marijuana shall be kept in a limited access area inaccessible to any persons other than dispensary agents, with the exception of displays allowable under 105 CMR 725.105(L)(10). Inside the RMD, all marijuana shall be stored in a locked, access controlled space in a limited access area during non-business hours.

(10) A RMD may display, in secure, locked cases, no more than one sample of each product offered for sale. These display cases may be transparent.

(11) The Department shall maintain and make available a list of all RMDs, their dispensing location, and their contact information.

 

Michigan

There are currently no restrictions on advertising (although there are restrictions on medical marijuana dispensaries) in Michigan. For more information, please refer to the Michigan Medical Marihuana Program.

 

Minnesota

There are currently no restrictions on advertising for medical marijuana manufacturers and distribution centers. For more information, please refer to Minnesota Statutes 2012, Subdivision 22, Medical use of cannabis data.

 

Montana

Refer to the Montana Code Annotated 2015 – Montana Marijuana Act:

50-46-341. Advertising prohibited. Persons with valid registry identification cards may not advertise marijuana or marijuana-related products in any medium, including electronic media.

 

Nevada

Refer to Chapter 453A – Medical Use of Marijuana:

NAC 453A.402  Approval required before use of name, logo, sign and advertisement. (NRS 453A.370)  A medical marijuana establishment shall not use:

1.  A name or logo unless the name or logo has been approved by the Administrator of the Division; or

2.  Any sign or advertisement unless the sign or advertisement has been approved by the Administrator of the Division.

(Added to NAC by Div. of Pub. & Behavioral Health by R004-14, 3-28-2014, eff. 4-1-2014)

 

New Hampshire

Refer to Title X – Public Health, Chapter 126-X, Use of Cannabis for Therapeutic Purposes:

The department shall adopt rules, pursuant to RSA 541-A, governing alternative treatment centers and the manner in which it shall consider applications for registration certificates for alternative treatment centers, including, but not limited to:

(12) Advertising restrictions, including a prohibition of misrepresentation and unfair practices.

 

New Jersey

Leafly has reached out to officials with the State of New Jersey Department of Health’s Medicinal Marijuana Program and are waiting for more comprehensive information on advertising regulations.

For more information, please refer to the state’s Medicinal Marijuana Program.

 

New Mexico

New Mexico currently does not have advertising regulations for medical marijuana dispensaries. For more information, please see the Licensing Requirements for Producers, Couriers, Manufacturers, and Laboratories.

 

New York

Refer to the Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York for Medical Marijuana:

§1004.16 Medical marihuana marketing and advertising by registered organizations. Restricts the marketing and advertising of medical marihuana.

(d) All advertisements, regardless of form, for approved medical marihuana products that make a statement relating to effectiveness, side effects, consequences, and contraindications shall present a true and accurate statement of such information.

(e) An advertisement does not satisfy the requirement that it presents a “true and accurate statement” of information relating to effectiveness, side effects, consequences, and contraindications if it fails to present a fair balance between information relating to effectiveness, side effects, consequences, and contraindications in that the information relating to effectiveness is presented in greater scope, depth, or detail than is the information relating to side effects, consequences and contraindications, taking into account all implementing factors such as typography, layout, contrast, headlines, paragraphing, white space, and any other techniques apt to achieve emphasis.

(f) An advertisement is false, lacking in fair balance, or otherwise misleading if it:

(1) contains a representation or suggestion that one marihuana brand or form is better, more effective, useful in a broader range of conditions or patients or safer than other drugs or treatments including other marihuana brands or forms, unless such a claim has been demonstrated by substantial scientific or clinical experience;

(2) Contains favorable information or opinions about a marihuana product previously regarded as valid but which have been rendered invalid by contrary and more credible recent information;

(3) Uses a quote or paraphrase out of context or without citing conflicting information from the same source, to convey a false or misleading idea;

(4) Uses a study on persons without a debilitating medical condition without disclosing that the subjects were not suffering from a debilitating medical condition;

(5) Uses data favorable to a marihuana product derived from patients treated with a different product or dosages different from those recommended in New York State;

(6) Contains favorable information or conclusions from a study that is inadequate in design, scope, or conduct to furnish significant support for such information or conclusions; or

(7) Fails to provide adequate emphasis for the fact that two or more facing pages are part of the same advertisement when only one page contains information relating to side effects, consequences and contraindications.

(g) False or misleading information in any part of the advertisement shall not be corrected by the inclusion of a true statement in another distinct part of the advertisement.

(h) An advertisement for any approved medical marihuana product shall not contain:

(1) any statement that is false or misleading;

(2) any statement that falsely disparages a competitor’s products;

(3) any statement, design, or representation, picture or illustration that is obscene or indecent;

(4) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration that encourages or represents the use of marihuana for a condition other than a serious condition as defined in subdivision seven of section thirty-three hundred sixty of the public health law;

(5) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration that encourages or represents the recreational use of marihuana;

(6) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration related to the safety or efficacy of marihuana, unless supported by substantial evidence or substantial clinical data;

(7) any statement, design, representation, picture or illustration portraying anyone under the age of 18, objects suggestive of the presence of anyone under the age of 18, or containing the use of a figure, symbol or language that is customarily associated with anyone under the age of 18;

(8) any offer of a prize, award or inducement to a certified patient, designated caregiver or practitioner related to the purchase of marihuana or a certification for the use of marihuana; or

(9) any statement that indicates or implies that the product or entity in the advertisement has been approved or endorsed by the commissioner, department, New York State or any person or entity associated with New York State provided that this shall not preclude a factual statement that an entity is a registered organization.

(i) Any advertisement for an approved medical marihuana product shall be submitted to the department at least 30 business days prior to the public dissemination of the advertisement.

(j) The submitter of the advertisement shall provide the following information to the department in addition to the advertisement itself:

(1) A cover letter that:

(i) provides the following subject line: Medical marihuana advertisement review package for a proposed advertisement;

(ii) provides a brief description of the format and expected distribution of the proposed advertisement; and

(iii) provides the submitter’s name, title, address, telephone number, fax number, and email address;

(2) an annotated summary of the proposed advertisement showing every claim being made in the advertisement and which references support for each claim;

(3) verification that a person identified in an advertisement as an actual patient or health care practitioner is an actual patient or health care practitioner and not a model or actor;

(4) verification that a spokesperson who is represented as an actual patient is indeed an actual patient;

(5) verification that an official translation of a foreign language advertisement is accurate;

(6) annotated references to support disease or epidemiology information, cross-referenced to the advertisement summary; and

(7) a final copy of the advertisement, including a video where applicable, in a format acceptable to the department.

(k) Advertising packages that are missing any of the elements in subdivision.

(j) of this section, or that fail to follow the specific instructions for submissions, shall be considered incomplete. If the department receives an incomplete package, it shall so notify the submitter.

(l) No advertisement may be disseminated if the submitter of the advertisement has received information that has not been widely publicized in medical literature that the use of any approved medical marihuana product may cause fatalities or serious damage to a patient.

(m) A registered organization, its officers, managers and employees shall not cooperate, directly or indirectly, in any advertising if such advertising has the purpose or effect of steering or influencing patient or caregiver choice with regard to the selection of a practitioner, or approved medical marihuana product.

(n) The department may:

(1) require a specific disclosure be made in the advertisement in a clear and conspicuous manner if the department determines that the advertisement would be false or misleading without such a disclosure; or

(2) require that changes be made to the advertisement that are:

(i) necessary to protect the public health, safety and welfare; or

(ii) consistent with dispensing information for the product under review.

 

Oregon

Refer to Oregon’s Medical Marijuana Dispensary Program Forms and Signage:

(2) The function, duties, and powers of the commission in sections 3 to 70 of this Act include the following:

(g) To regulate and prohibit any advertising by manufacturers, processors, wholesalers or retailers of marijuana items by the medium of newspapers, letters, billboards, radio or otherwise.

Q. What signage must dispensaries display at their sites?

NOTE: All required signage is available on the Forms and Signage page.

Entry Signage

A registered dispensary must post the applicable entry sign on the exterior of the dispensary in a conspicuous location that can be easily seen by the public from outside the dispensary at any point of public entry, in bold, 80 point Times New Roman font.

  • If a dispensary is only transferring marijuana and immature plants to OMMP patients and caregivers, the dispensary must post a sign that reads: “Medical Marijuana Patients Only.”
  • If a dispensary has properly notified the Authority that it intends to sell limited marijuana retail products, the dispensary must post signs that read: “Medical Marijuana Patients and Persons 21 and Older Permitted” and “NO PERSON UNDER 21 PERMITTED ON THE PREMISES WITHOUT AN OMMP CARD.”

Point of Sale Signage

A registered dispensary that has notified the Oregon Health Authority that it is conducting retail sales must also post the following signs at the point of sale:

  • Pregnancy Warning Poster
  • Poisoning Prevention Poster
  • A color copy of the “Educate Before You Recreate” poster (Source:whatslegaloregon.com).

Marijuana Information Card

Distribute to each individual at the time of sale a Marijuana Information Card, prescribed by the Authority, measuring 3.5 inches high by 5 inches.

 

Rhode Island

There are currently no advertising regulations for medical marijuana dispensaries in Rhode Island. For more information, please refer to the Edward O. Hawkins and Thomas C. Slater Medical Marijuana Act.

 

Texas

The advertising regulations for Texas’ CBD distribution centers is to be determined. For more information, please refer to the Texas Compassionate-Use Act.

 

Vermont

There are currently no advertising regulations for dispensaries in Vermont. For more information, please refer to the Vermont Marijuana Registry.

 

Washington

Refer to the Washington State Legislature section on cannabis advertising:

WAC 314-55-155

Advertising.

(1) Advertising by retail licensees. The board limits each retail licensed premises to one sign identifying the retail outlet by the licensee’s business name or trade name that is affixed or hanging in the windows or on the outside of the premises that is visible to the general public from the public right of way. The size of the sign is limited to sixteen hundred square inches.

(2) General. All marijuana advertising and labels of useable marijuana and marijuana-infused products sold in the state of Washington may not contain any statement, or illustration that:

(a) Is false or misleading;

(b) Promotes over consumption;

(c) Represents the use of marijuana has curative or therapeutic effects;

(d) Depicts a child or other person under legal age to consume marijuana, or includes:

(i) Objects, such as toys, characters, or cartoon characters suggesting the presence of a child, or any other depiction designed in any manner to be especially appealing to children or other persons under legal age to consume marijuana; or

(ii) Is designed in any manner that would be especially appealing to children or other persons under twenty-one years of age.

(3) No licensed marijuana producer, processor, or retailer shall place or maintain, or cause to be placed or maintained, an advertisement of marijuana, usable marijuana, or a marijuana-infused product in any form or through any medium whatsoever:

(a) Within one thousand feet of the perimeter of a school grounds, playground, recreation center or facility, child care center, public park, library, or a game arcade admission to which it is not restricted to persons aged twenty-one years or older;

(b) On or in a public transit vehicle or public transit shelter; or

(c) On or in a publicly owned or operated property.

(4) Giveaways, coupons, and distribution of branded merchandise are banned.

(5) All advertising must contain the following warnings:

(a) “This product has intoxicating effects and may be habit forming.”;

(b) “Marijuana can impair concentration, coordination, and judgment. Do not operate a vehicle or machinery under the influence of this drug.”;

(c) “There may be health risks associated with consumption of this product.”; and

(d) “For use only by adults twenty-one and older. Keep out of the reach of children.”

 

Source: Leafly

 

 

Would you move your family to another country across the world, to give your children a better life? Or would you take the chance of prosecution by using Cannabis oil illegally?

Click on the picture to can watch the video:

Video Medical Marihuana Cannabis

In Medical Marijuana States,’ Pot Doctors’ Push Boundaries

CHICAGO — The green-typeface slogan “WE’ED like to be your doctor!” —unmistakably weed-friendly — has attracted hundreds of medical marijuanapatients in less than a year to Dr. Bodo Schneider’s clinics in southern Illinois and suburban Chicago.

In New Jersey, Dr. Anthony Anzalone has a similar following at his three clinics, marketed online with a marijuana leaf logo and a “DrMarijuanaNJ” web address.

The two marijuana-friendly doctors in states with similar laws face starkly different treatment by government regulators. When it comes to oversight of boundary-pushing doctors, enforcement practices vary in the 23 states allowing medical cannabis.

Illinois has taken a tough posture. Schneider, a former emergency room doctor, may get his license revoked in a medical board case getting underway Tuesday. Accused of charging patients for marijuana recommendations without a legitimate doctor-patient relationship, he’s the third Illinois physician to face punishment related to medical marijuana in a state where legal sales only started this month.

“I understand why they don’t want everybody and their uncle opening up a marijuana stand,” said Schneider’s attorney, Luke Baumstark. “But I think the regulators have gone after a very high percentage of the people who have tried to use this law at all. It’s over-aggressive.”

New Jersey has taken no disciplinary action against Anzalone, a gynecologist, or any other doctor related to medical marijuana since sales started three years ago, according to Jeff Lamm, spokesman for the state’s Board of Medical Examiners.

“The state’s been very good to me,” Anzalone said in a phone interview. “We’re complying with the law as best we can. … All I’m doing is the job other doctors don’t want to do.”

Indeed, pot doctors fill a void left by physicians unfamiliar with marijuana’s health benefits and fearful of endorsing what the federal government regards as a controlled substance, cannabis advocates say.

Schneider is a “godsend to patients” in southern Illinois, where two major health care organizations actively prevent their doctors from recommending marijuana, said Dan Linn of the Illinois chapter of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.

Writing a law to restrict how doctors recommend marijuana is tricky. Lawmakers in Illinois, New Jersey and other states have tried to avoid California’s drop-in, instant exams by attempting to define in legislation a legitimate doctor-patient relationship. Laws commonly call for a “bona fide” relationship with a physical exam and review of medical records. New Jersey doctors must register in a publicly viewable database and take courses in addiction medicine and pain management.

Even in two more tolerant states — Colorado and California — how governments oversee pot doctors has become an issue.

In Colorado, where medical marijuana has been legal since 2000, more than 115,000 people hold medical recommendations because they’re either too young to buy recreational pot or because they prefer a lower tax rate and higher possession limits. Colorado health authorities have grappled for years with ways to curb suspect pot recommendations.

Colorado physicians are barred from working out of dispensaries or having any financial stake in the marijuana business. As in other states, they’re required to examine patients in person once a year.

The Colorado Medical Board says it has sanctioned at least six physicians since 2009 for violating pot regulations, though details of those cases aren’t public. In 2013, one physician received three years’ probation after being convicted of making an improper pot recommendation to an undercover police officer.

In notoriously permissive California, a “Get Baked Sale” of marijuana food products in June had doctors on hand to provide on-the-spot patient recommendations. The state, which was the first to legalize medical cannabis, has disciplined only eight doctors in 20 years for improper marijuana recommendations.

California’s laid-back approach may change. The state recently enacted legislation to require the Medical Board to crack down on doctors who write recommendations without a proper patient exam or valid medical reason.

In Illinois, regulators alerted doctors soon after the medical marijuana law passed in 2013 that one doctor shouldn’t set up shop to treat all the eligible medical conditions, which range from glaucoma to HIV and cancer.

“The Department will continue to closely scrutinize instances where a physician’s practice exists solely to offer medical cannabis certifications,” said Terry Horstman, spokesman for the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation.

Supporters fear that Illinois’ harsh stance discourages mainstream doctors from participating and that this pushes patients into the arms of a few pot doctors who may be unmotivated to follow up on patients’ overall health concerns.

Said Chris Lindsey of the Marijuana Policy Project, a national group that supports legally regulated marijuana: “Having a few well known clinics in the state that clearly follow the rules can be a valuable resource, both to patients who otherwise have few options, and for doctors who would prefer to make a referral.”

Source: TheNewYorkTimes

Marijuana Arrests In Washington D.C. Are Almost Non-Existent In 2015

It wasn’t that long ago that thousands of people were arrested for marijuana annually in Washington D.C.. 2,346 people were arrested for marijuana in Washington D.C. in 2011. Washington D.C. voters approved marijuana legalization during the 2014 Election. As a result, marijuana arrests in D.C. are down. Way down. As of November 6th (the most current data available), there have only been 7 arrests for marijuana in D.C.. Per theWashington City Paper:

Last week, on Nov. 4, the District marked the first anniversary of the passage of Initiative 71, a ballot measure that effectively legalized weed, at least in the form of possessing, growing, and using (but not selling) tiny amounts of it in one’s home.

In that line, data provided by the Metropolitan Police Department shows that marijuana arrests have dropped to historic lows. MPD has only issued seven arrests for possession of marijuana this year, as of Nov. 6—down 99.2 percent from 2014’s 895 total arrests. Even last year, though, police arrested just seven people from Jul. 7 to Dec. 31, likely an indication of a change in MPD strategy after decriminalization first took effect. Here’s a by-the-numbers breakdown of MPD arrests for pot possession from 2010 through last week:

2010: 2161

2011: 2346

2012: 1553

2013: 1215

2014: 895

2015: 7 (as of Nov. 6)

According to the ACLU, the average arrest for marijuana costs $750, and that doesn’t include any court proceedings or jail, just the arrest. I have seen numbers that are even higher than that, so D.C. could have been higher or lower, but taking the average, that means that D.C. payed roughly $1,759,500 in 2011 to arrest people for marijuana. This year that number would be $5,250. And I would be curious to know why there were even seven arrests in a city that legalized marijuana. There’s potentially even more money to be saved, because no one should be arrested for a plant that is 114 times safer than alcohol.

This is just one city (albeit a large one) in America. Imagine if every city in America was doing this? And that’s just the savings for arrests. Add to that the savings from detainment/incarceration, and court proceedings. Then add to that the tax revenue and other benefits that would be brought to each city from a taxed and regulated industry. All of that would add up to a benefit package that no city in America should deny.

The Terpenes of Cannabis Their Aromas and Effects

THC activates the CB2 receptor, which regulates immune function and the peripheral nervous system. But this is not the reason people feel stoned when they smoke marijuana; instead, what causes the high is THC binding to the CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and the central nervous system. Stimulating the CB2 receptor doesn’t have a psychoactive effect because CB2 receptors are localized predominantly outside the brain and central nervous system. CB2 receptors are present in the gut, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands, and reproductive organs. Marijuana is such a versatile medicinal substance because it acts everywhere, not just in the brain.

In 2008, the Swiss scientist Jürg Gertsch documented beta-caryophyllene’s binding affinity for the CB2 receptor and described it as “a dietary cannabinoid.” It is the only terpenoid known to directly activate a cannabinoid receptor (which is one of the reasons why green, leafy vegetables are very healthy for people to eat). The dual status of beta-caryophyllene as a terpenoid and a CB2 activator underscores the synergistic interplay between various components of the cannabis plant. There are many, many chemical compounds in marijuana, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids (which give fruit skin its color). Each has specific medicinal attributes, which combine to create a holistic “entourage effect,” so that the therapeutic impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts. Certain terpenoids dilate capillaries in the lungs, enabling smoked or vaporized THC to enter the bloodstream more easily. Nerolidol, a sedative terpenoid, is a skin penetrant that increases permeability and potentially facilitates cannabinoid absorption when applied topically for pain or skin conditions. Terpenoids and cannabinoids both increase blood flow, enhance cortical activity and kill respiratory pathogens – including MSRA, the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that in recent years has claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Americans. Dr. Russo’s article reports that cannabinoid-terpenoid interactions “could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal, and bacterial infections.”

Marijuana’s bouquet of terpenes – that “riot of perfumes,” as the poet (and hashish eater) Arthur Rimbaud once said – plays another important role: Terpenes buffer THC’s psychoactivity. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid interactions can amplify the beneficial effects of cannabis while reducing THC-induced anxiety. Some people can’t handle THC dominant marijuana, while others enjoy the relaxed intensity of the cannabis high. However, Most everyone would prefer organically grown bud with its tangy, antioxidant-rich mixture of cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids, as opposed to Marinol, the pure synthetic-THC pill. For nearly everyone who has tried both, the experience of THC alone compares poorly to that of THC combined with terpenes and other components of the cannabis plant.

THC activates the CB2 receptor, which regulates immune function and the peripheral nervous system. But this is not the reason people feel stoned when they smoke marijuana; instead, what causes the high is THC binding to the CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and the central nervous system. Stimulating the CB2 receptor doesn’t have a psychoactive effect because CB2 receptors are localized predominantly outside the brain and central nervous system. CB2 receptors are present in the gut, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands, and reproductive organs. Marijuana is such a versatile medicinal substance because it acts everywhere, not just in the brain.

In 2008, the Swiss scientist Jürg Gertsch documented beta-caryophyllene’s binding affinity for the CB2 receptor and described it as “a dietary cannabinoid.” It is the only terpenoid known to directly activate a cannabinoid receptor (which is one of the reasons why green, leafy vegetables are very healthy for people to eat). The dual status of beta-caryophyllene as a terpenoid and a CB2 activator underscores the synergistic interplay between various components of the cannabis plant. There are many, many chemical compounds in marijuana, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids (which give fruit skin its color). Each has specific medicinal attributes, which combine to create a holistic “entourage effect,” so that the therapeutic impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts. Certain terpenoids dilate capillaries in the lungs, enabling smoked or vaporized THC to enter the bloodstream more easily. Nerolidol, a sedative terpenoid, is a skin penetrant that increases permeability and potentially facilitates cannabinoid absorption when applied topically for pain or skin conditions. Terpenoids and cannabinoids both increase blood flow, enhance cortical activity and kill respiratory pathogens – including MSRA, the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that in recent years has claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Americans. Dr. Russo’s article reports that cannabinoid-terpenoid interactions “could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal, and bacterial infections.”

Marijuana’s bouquet of terpenes – that “riot of perfumes,” as the poet (and hashish eater) Arthur Rimbaud once said – plays another important role: Terpenes buffer THC’s psychoactivity. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid interactions can amplify the beneficial effects of cannabis while reducing THC-induced anxiety. Some people can’t handle THC dominant marijuana, while others enjoy the relaxed intensity of the cannabis high. However, Most everyone would prefer organically grown bud with its tangy, antioxidant-rich mixture of cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids, as opposed to Marinol, the pure synthetic-THC pill. For nearly everyone who has tried both, the experience of THC alone compares poorly to that of THC combined with terpenes and other components of the cannabis plant.

Relation between Terpenes and Cannabinoids

According to several sources, eating a good ripe mango 45 minutes before smoking cannabis increases the effect of the herb. This could be explained by the presence of Myrcene in mangos, which acts in synergy with the THC. However, you should select a very good variety of mango, because only a few have essential oil rich in myrcene (Cavalo 57.1%, Rose 52.4%, Sword 37.2% and Paulista 30.3%) Also, if the mango is not very ripe the myrcene level will be too low to notice its interaction.

THC and the other cannabinoids have no odor, so the cannabis fragrance depends on which terpenes predominate. Thus far, focus has only been placed in one area or another… first THC, now CBD. I believe this is foolish as I intend to show that many many compounds contribute to the healing properties of the plant. To focus on only one aspect is a waste of time. Chemically extracting or isolating the healing properties from single compounds simply cannot be done with cannabis due to the various terpene mixes and the fact that most terpenes have healing properties that also follow the “entourage effect”.

It’s not just about THC or CBD. Cannabis is a mix of many different compounds. Most of them fall into three categories: cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavanoids. Each of these compounds can significantly modify the therapeutic benefits of the plant. There are hundreds of different chemical combinations each producing a different effect. Meschler and Howlett (1999) discussed several mechanisms by which terpenoids modulate THC activity. For instance, some terpenoids bind to cannabinoid receptors sequestering THC by perturbing annular lipids surrounding the receptor, or by increasing the fluidity of neuronal membranes, and increasing cell wall permeability. Other terpenoids alter the signal by remodeling G-proteins. And then there are terpenoids that alter the pharmacokinetics of THC itself. Terpenoids may also act on other receptors and neurotransmitters. Some terpenoids act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (as does Prozac), some enhance norepinephrine activity (as do tricyclic antidepressants), some increase dopamine activity (as do monoamine oxidase inhibitors and bupropion), and some augment GABA (as do baclofen and the benzodiazepines).

Properties of Cannabinoids

Δ8-THC (∆8-Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic

Δ9-THC (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antiepileptic, Anti-proliferative, Antipsychotic, Antinausea, Antineoplastic, Antispasmodic, Anxiolytic, Appetite stimulant, Anti Glaucoma, Helps with Neuropathic pain.

Δ9-THCA (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) Anti-proliferative, Antispasmodic

Δ9-THCV (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Anorectic, Antiepileptic, Bone stimulant

CBC (Cannabichromene) Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative, Bone stimulant

CBCA (Cannabichromic Acid) Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory

CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic, Antidiabetic, Antiemetic, Antiepileptic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-ischemic, Antimicrobial, Antineoplastic, Anti-proliferative, Antipsoriatic, Antipsychotic, Antispasmodic, Anxiolytic, Bone stimulant, Immonosuppressive, Intestinal anti-prokinetic, Neuroprotective, Vasodilative

CBDA (Cannabidiolic Acid) Anti-inflammatory, Anti-proliferative

CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Anticonvulsant, Bone stimulant

CBG (Cannabigerol) Antimicrobial, Anti-proliferative, Bone stimulant

CBGA (Cannabigerolic Acid) Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial

CBN (Cannabinol) Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Sedative

CBL (Cannabicyclol) Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial

AEA (Anandamide) is an often missed endocannabinoid found in the human body. Anandamide is the brain’s own THC (just like “endorphin” is the brain’s own morphine). Anandamide has only been found in two plants – Cacao (chocolate) and Cannabis. The name Anandamide is taken from the Sanskrit word (and Hinduistic religious term) ananda, which means “joy, bliss, delight”, and amide.
Anandamide regulates the functions of our central nervous system and our immune system. AEA regulates appetite, memory, sensations of pleasure and pain, our immune system, and sleep patterns. It also inhibits certain cancers, such as breast cancer in humans. It is used in the drug therapy of hypertension and cerebrovascular spasms, as myocardial protective agents, and in the relaxation of uterine spasms. Research suggests that anandamide plays a role in the making and breaking of short-term connections between nerve cells, and this is related to learning and memory. Animal studies suggest that too much anandamide induces forgetfulness. This suggests that if substances could be developed that keep anandamide from binding to its receptor, these substances might be used to treat memory loss or even to enhance existing memory.

THC and the other cannabinoids have no odor.

Terpenes

Buchbauer et al. (1993) assayed the sedative effects of over 40 terpenoids upon inhalation by mice; linalool was the most powerful, reducing mouse motility 73% after 1 hour of inhalation. The study demonstrated that other terpenoids found in cannabis, such as citronellol and α-terpineol, are also deeply sedating upon inhalation, even in low concentrations. Furthermore, combinations of these terpenoids are synergistic in their sedative effects. These terpenoids may mitigate the anxiety provoked by pure THC. Inhalation of such terpenoids also provides antidepressant effects (Komori et al. 1995).

β-Myrcene has an odor that is variously described as an aroma of hops, clove like, earthy, green-vegatative, citrus, fruity with tropical, mango and minty nuances. The various odors are the result of slight differences in the overall makeup. All of these flavors and odors are commonly used to describe Cannabis.
β-Myrcene is the most prevalent terpene found in most varieties of marijuana but it is not found in hemp. It is present in significant concentrations in cannabis resin itself. It is also found in mango, hops, lemon grass, East Indian bay tree, and verbena. Because of its appealing fragrance, myrcene is used extensively in the perfume industry. Myrcene has antimicrobial, antiseptic, analgesic, antioxidant, anticarcinogen (It blocks the actions of cytochrome, aflatoxin B and other pro-mutagens that are implicated in carcinogenesis.) and anti-inflammatory properties. It has shown some promise when used as an antidepressant, or as an additive to other antidepressant drugs and is also used in massage therapy as a muscle relaxer.
Myrcene is a synergist of THC: A combination of the two molecules creates a stronger experience than THC alone. Myrcene affects the permeability of the cell membranes, thus it allows more THC to reach brain cells and increase the absorption of other terpenes. This terpene contributes strongly to the infamous “couch-lock” experience.

Acetanisole has a medium strength, sweet, anisic, vanilla-like aroma with powdery, balsamic and benzaldehyde nuances. Used in flavoring, it has been described as a sweet, anisic, fruity and cherry with powdery vanilla nuances.

Acetic Acid has an irritating, pungent, stinging, acidic, sour odor of vinegar. It is the main component of vinegar apart from water. In fact, Vinegar is simply dilute Acetic acid. Acetic acid also has the distinctive sour vinegar taste.

Phenyl Acetic Acid has a sour yet sweet, waxy, civet, honey, rosey, floral odor similar to honeysuckle with notes of chocolate and tobacco. It is also used in cosmetics for perfuming. Used as a flavoring, it has been described as sweet, floral, chocolate and honey with tobacco notes.

Anethole has a very strong, sweet, anise, licorice aroma. It is used in a wide variety of fragrances and flavors. It has a sweet, anise, and spicy licorice flavor with a lingering, sweet aftertaste. Anethole has shown some antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

α-Bisabolol has a weak, tangy, fresh and clean, citrus, floral, sweet aroma with a peppery note, and is used in various fragrances. It is the primary constituent (up to 50%) of the essential oil from German chamomile. It has shown anti-aging, anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, antibiotic and anticancer activities.

β-Bisabolol has a medium strength, citrus, floral, tangy, lemon, fresh, sweet, herbaceous aroma. It is used in the chemical communication system of the Cotton boll weevil. It has shown anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal and antimutagenic activities.

Borneol smells much like the menthol aroma of camphor and is easily converted into it. In Chinese medicine herbs containing borneol are recommended for fatigue and overstress. Borneal is considered a “calming sedative” in chinese medicine. It is directed for fatigue, recovery from illness and stress. It is found in small quantities in many essential oils. Comercially it is derived from artemisia plants such as wormwood and some species of cinnamon.

α-cis-Bergamotene Has a strong odor of ground black pepper. It is an aroma component of many species of the family orchidaceae. It has also shown some antioxidant activity

α-trans-Bergamotene has a medium strength, warm, tea-leaf-like odor. It is used in the chemical communication system of some species of aphids.

Butanoic Acid OR Butyric Acid has a unpleasant, acrid odor normally found in perspiration, flatulence and rancid butter. It is the primary cause of the foul smell associated with human vomit as it is one of many stomach acids that helps break down food for energy, and it is a common addition to stink bombs for this reason. It is actually used as a flavoring to my personal surprise, where it is described as acidic sour, cheesy, dairy and creamy with a fruity nuance.

(Methyl Thio) Butyrate has an odor that is sulfurous with egg and cheese notes, and tomato, tropical-fruit top notes. Used in flavorings, its taste is a musty, sulfureous, Limburger-type cheese top note, with a metallic cheese body. Some have described the odor as a sulfury, cheeseish, putrid cabbage or garlic.

α-Cadinene has a pungent, smokey, woody, guaic wood-like odor. It is listed by the FDA as a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption. It has shown some antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimalarial activities.

γ-Cadinene has an herbaceous, herbal, woody aroma. It has shown some antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Many species of termites and a few beetles utilize γ-Cadinene in their chemical communication systems.

Camphene has a pungent, herbal, fir needle smell. It’s odor has been described as camphoraceous, cooling, piney woody with terpy nuances. It has citrus and green minty and green spicy notes. Camphene is used in fragrances and food additives. Its flavor has been described as Camphoraceous, cooling and minty with citrus and green spicy nuances. It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such as turpentine, cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil, neroli, ginger oil, and valerian.
Its mid-19th century use as a fuel for lamps was limited by its explosiveness.

Camphor has a very characteristic odor for which the tree is named. The most recognizable product that contains the extracts of camphor are medicated chest rubs, which have the same distinct scent. It is a strong, penetrating, persistent odor. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent in chewing gum and hard candy. The therapeutic properties of camphor oil are analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cardiac, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hypertensive, insecticide, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge and vulnerary.

Capsaicin in its pure form is odorless. It is an irritant for mammals, known for the sensation it provokes when inhaled, eaten, or applied to the skin. In this sense, it is similar to menthol (which stimulates the bodys sensors without causing an actual change in temperature). Capsaicin is used as an analgesic in topical ointments and dermal patches to relieve pain and as an anti-inflammatory.

Δ-3-Carene has a medium strength, sweet, pungent citrus odor. It is a constituent of pine and cedar resin but is found in many other plants including rosemary. In aroma therapy, cypress oil, high in D-3-Carene, is used to dry excess fluids, tears, running noses, excess menstrual flow and perspiration. It is thought to be at least partially responsible for the dry mouth and eye problems that are common side effects experienced by some cannabis users.

Dextro-Carvone has a spicy, bready, caraway aroma. It is found in mandarin peel oil and gingergrass oil. It is the principal constituent (60-70%) of the oil from caraway seeds.

Laevo-Carvone has a sweet, minty, herbaceous, spearmint odor. L-Carvone is found in spearmint and kuromoji oils. It is used extensively in chewing gums and flavor oils such as spearmint, but is also used in spice and floral fragrances for air fresheners, perfumes, shampoos, deodorants, body wash, laundry detergents, cosmetics and toothpaste.

Castoreum Absolute has a very strong, sweet and smokey, animal leathery odor.

Carvacrol has the characteristic pungent, warm odor of oregano. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent and its flavor has been described as spicy, herbal, phenolic, medicinal and woody. Carvacrol is responsible for the biological activities of oregano. Carvacrol exhibits many diverse activities such as: antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, AChe inhibitory, antielastase, insecticidal, antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities.

β-Caryophyllene has a sweet, woody and dry clove odor and tastes pepper spicy with camphor and astringent citrus backgrounds. It is a major terpene found in black pepper, clove and cotton. It is found in smaller %’s in many other green, leafy vegetables, herbs, and spices. Caryophylene contributes to black pepper’s spiciness. Caryophylene oil is also used industrially to enhance tobacco flavor.
Caryophylene, given in high amounts, is a calcium and potassium ion channel blocker. As a result, it impedes the pressure excerted by heart muscles. As a topical it is analgesic and is one of the active constituents that makes clove oil, a preferred treatment for toothache. It does not seem to be involved in mood change, however caryophyllene shows great promise in a salve or lotion as a therapeutic compound for inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders because of its ability to bind directly to the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2.

Caryophyllene Oxide has a lemon balm odor. It has shown some effectiveness as an insecticidal/anti-feedant and as broad-spectrum antifungal in plant defence. Caryophyllene oxide has the distinction of being the component responsible for cannabis identification by drug-sniffing dogs.

Acetyl Cedrene has a medium strength, warm, woody, amber musky aroma. It constitutes up to 20% of some fragrance concentrates.

α-Cedrene has a medium strength, woody, sweet, fresh aroma of cedar. It is used in bakery items, sherbet and sorbet. It is a major component in the essential oil of cedar.

α-Cedrene Epoxide has a medium strength, woody, amber, tobacco, sandalwood, fresh patchouli aroma. It is commonly used as a fragrance agent and a perfuming agent for cosmetics.

β-Cedrene has a medium strength, woody, fresh aroma of cedar. It is a major component in the essential oil of cedar.

Cedrol has a very faint aroma that is sweet, soft, dry and cedarwoody. Studies have shown cedrol to show deeply sedative effects when inhaled. Cedrol is a major component of cedarwood oil. It is found in the essential oil of conifers, especially in cypress and juniper. It has also been identified in Origanum onites, a plant related to oregano.

Cinnamaldehyde has a very strong, spicy, sweet cinnamon odor, and it gives cinnamon its flavor. It occurs naturally in the bark of cinnamon trees and other species of the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamaldehyde constitutes 90% of the essential oil of cinnamon.

α-hexyl-Cinnamaldehyde has a medium strength, sweet, floral, green, jasmin, citrus and fruity aroma with powdery, tropical or spicy notes. As a flavoring it is sweet, waxy, floral and green with citrus and fruity nuances.

α-amyl-Cinnamaldehyde has a medium, sweet floral, oily, fruity, herbal, jasmin, tropical aroma. Used in flavorings it is tropical, waxy, floral, rosy and honey-like with a fruity nuance and body.

Cinnamic Acid has a weak balsamic, sweet, storax, honey-like odor. It is obtained from oil of cinnamon, or from balsams such as storax.

Cinnamyl Alcohol has a medium strength, cinnamon spice, floral, green and fermented odor with powdery balsamic nuances. As a flavor component it has a green, floral, spicy and honey flavor with a fermented yeasty nuance.

Ethyl Cinnamate has a medium strength, sweet, balsamic, spicy, powdery, fruity, berry, plum odor. It is used as a flavoring agent, where it has a balsamic, powdery, fruity, berry, punch, spice, sweet and green flavor with an amber note.

Citronellol has a floral, rosy, sweet, citrus with green, fatty, terpene nuanced odor. Used in flavorings it has a floral, rose, sweet, green with fruity citrus nuanced flavor. In studies it was shown to be deeply sedating upon inhalation.

Citronellal makes up up to 80% of the leaf oil from Kaffir lime leaves and is the compound responsible for its characteristic aroma. Citronellal has a high repellent effectiveness against mosquitoes and other insects. It is also shown to have strong antifungal qualities. Citronellal is the main component that gives citronella oil its distinctive lemon-lime scent.

α-Curcumene has an odor of Turmeric. It is found prominantly in the Zingiber genus of Ginger. It is one of the main active ingredients of both Turmeric and Ginger oils.

γ-Curcumene has an earthy aroma. It is found prominantly in the Libocedrus bidwillii tree of New Zealand. It is one of the main active ingredients of both Turmeric and Ginger oils.

p-Cymene has a musty tang of terpenes with an orange to carrot odor, although synthetic p-Cymene can have a turpentine-like odor. It has shown Antibiotic, Anticandidal and AChE inhibiting properties. p-Cymene is a constituent of a number of essential oils, most commonly the oils of cumin and thyme.

Decanal has a very powerful, waxy, orange-peel, citrus like, sweet, aldehydic odor. It is used in fragrances and flavoring. Its flavor is a waxy, fatty, citrus and orange peel with a slight green melon nuance. Decanal occurs in nature and is an important component in citrus along with octanal, citral, and sinensal.

Dehydrovomifoliol has a fruity and flowery odor. It has shown some cytostatic and antiviral activity.

Diallyl Disulfide has a strong, alliceous, onion and garlic-like odor with metallic nuances. Highly diluted, it is used as a flavoring in food. Its flavor is green onion and garlic-like with meaty nuances. It is an organosulfur (organic compounds that contain sulfur) derived from garlic. It is also one of the main components of the distilled oil of garlic. Diallyl disulfide has many of the health benefits of garlic, but it is also an allergen causing garlic allergy.

Dihydroactinidiolide has a fruity, musky, coumarin tea-like, peach aroma. It is a flavoring agent for food and tobacco and used in tea flavors, berry flavors, other fruit flavors, brown flavors, seaweed, tomato and beer. It has shown antiproliferative effects.

Dimethyl Disulfide has a high strength, sulfurous, rotten garlic, cabbage or onion type of aroma. Dimethyl disulfide along with dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are compounds given off by the plant known as dead-horse arum. Flies are attracted to the odor of fetid meat the combination of the three make, and they help pollinate this plant.

Eicosane has a waxy odor. It is used in fragrance concentrates. It is the shortest compound found in paraffin waxes used to form candles. It is also used in insect repellent.

β-Elemene has a medium strength, sweet aroma. The parenteral form of β-elemene is isolated from Rhizoma zedoariae, a type of ginger, although It is a volatile terpene found in botanicals such as celery, mint, and it is prevalent in a variety of medicinal plants. It has strong antiproliferative anti-cancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors.

Ethylmethyl Acetic Acid has a medium strength, acidic fruity, dirty, cheesey, fermented odor with the strong nuance of roquefort cheese. It is used as a flavoring with a fruity, dirty, acidic flavor with a dairy, buttery and cheesey nuance.

Eucalyptol/1,8-Cineole has the camphor-minty odor of eucalyptus. In fact, it is the main ingredient in oil of eucalyptus. It is also found in other fragrant plants. It is used to increase circulation, and reduce pain and swelling when applied topically. Cineole readily crosses the blood/brain barrier, possibly helping other cannabinoids to cross more readily as well. The inhalation of cineole increases cerebral blood flow and enhances cortical activity. The effects of cineole, when combined with oral or smoked Cannabis, are reported as being very uplifting, noticeably increasing mental and physical energy. This terpene, and others like it, may be responsible for the reported difference in effect between indica and sativa strains with a similar cannabinoid profile. Cineole is most likely the stimulating and thought provoking part of the cannabis smoke.

α-Eudesmol has a sweet, woody odor. It’s been shown to protect against brain injury after focal ischemia in rats. α-Eudesmol shows signs that it may become useful for the treatment of migraines.

β-Eudesmol has a sweet, green, woody, yuzu-like aroma. It has shown some antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities.

γ-Eudesmol has a waxy, sweet, woody, floral odor. γ-Eudesmol presents cytotoxic effect to cancer cells.

All Eudesmol isomers displayed cytotoxicity to different tumour cell lines.

Eugenol causes the aromatic smell typical of cloves. It is sometimes called clove oil because it is the active element in cloves. Eugenol is found in insect attractants as well as UV absorbers. It is an antioxidant, and When mixed with zinc oxide, eugenol is a common base for temporary fillings. This is the reason all dental offices smell the same.

Farnesol has a weak, mild, fresh, sweet, floral, linden tree odor. It is used as an agent in cosmetics, flavors and fragrances. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative effects and it has been suggested to function as a chemopreventative and antitumor agent with some analgesic potential. Farnesol is present in many essential oils such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, lemon grass, tuberose, rose, musk, balsam and tolu. It is used in perfumery to emphasize the odors of sweet floral perfumes. It is also a natural pesticide for mites and is a pheromone for several other insects.

β-Fenchol has a camphorous, borneol, piney, woody, dry, sweet, lemon scent. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. It is an antioxidant and antimicrobial with limited antifungal properties.

Fenchone has a camphorous, thuja, cedarleaf, herbal, earthy, woody aroma. As an additive, its flavor has been described as cooling, camphoreous, sweet and minty with a musty, earthy nuance.

Geraniol has a medium strength, floral, sweet, rosey, fruity odor with citrus to citronella-like odor nuances. Its flavor is floral, rosy, waxy and perfumey with a fruity peach-like nuance. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. It is used in flavors such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry. It is also used for cosmetic Uses as a perfuming agent. Geraniol is a natural antioxidant. It inhibits DNA synthesis. In one study, Geraniol was shown to suppress pancreatic tumor growth.

Geranyl Acetate has a very strong, floral aroma with a fruity twist. It is found in a variety of natural oils from plants such as citronella, lemon grass, sassafras, rose, and many others. It exhibits strong antimicrobial properties.

Germacrene B has a potent odor ranging from spicy, warm and earthy to the sweet aroma of expressed lime oil. It is not used in food or fragrances.

Germacrene D has strong, oily, spicy, green woody, floral scent compounds. It is used in bakery goods, confections, and edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet.

Germacrenes are produced in a number of plant species for their antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, though they also play a role as insect pheromones. The essential oil of the red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum) is characterized by its high contents of germacrene.

Guaia-1(10),11-diene has an elegant and sweet woody aroma. It is used as a fragrance for a wide range of products from food additives, tobacco flavorings and general cosmetics, to room odorizers.

Guaiacol has a powerful, smoke-like, phenolic, spicey, woody somewhat medicinal odor. It has a sweet, powdery, musty, vanilla, floral, almond flavor. It is used chiefly as an expectorant, but is also used as a local anesthetic, an antiseptic and an intestinal disinfectant. Guaiacol is a precursor to various flavorants, such as eugenol and vanillin.

α-Guaiene has a medium strength, sweet, earthy, woody, balsamic, peppery aroma. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent in bakery items, cereals and cereal products, including flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, and edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet. α-Guaiene imparts earthy, spicy aromas and tastes. α-Guaiene also shows anti-inflammatory properties.

α-Gurjunene has a slight, woody, balsamic odor. It is used in cosmetics and fragrances. It has shown to be a antimicrobial as well as an antibacterial agent.

Hexanaldehyde has a very powerful, penetrating, fatty green, freshly cut grassy odor. It is also used in the flavor industry to produce fruity flavors that are green woody, vegetative, apple, grassy, citrus and orange with fresh lingering aftertastes.

Hexanoic Acid has a pungent, oily, acrid, sour, fatty, sweaty, rancid cheese odor. It is used as a flavoring as well as in cosmetics. It is a fatty acid found naturally in various animal fats and oils. It is one of the chemicals that give the decomposing fleshy seed coat of the ginkgo its characteristic unpleasant odor.

α-Humulene (obsolete name: α-Caryophyllene) has an aroma that has been described as bitter, medium woody, and hoppy. α-Humulene has shown anti-inflammatory properties. Humulene is one of the essential oils made in the flowering cone of the hops plant Humulus lupulus. The concentration of humulene varies among different varieties of the plant, but can be up to 40% of the essential oil of noble hops.

β-Ionol has a sweet, woody, herbal, fruity, floral, violet, tropical and berry aroma. As a flavoring it is a floral, violet-like, fruity, woody, berry flavor with powdery nuances.

β-Ionone has a flowery, violet, raspberry odor. It is a significant contributor to the aroma of roses, despite its relatively low concentration, and is an important fragrance chemical used in perfumes. β-ionone, derived from grape carotenoids, plays an important role in the flavor of some red wines. The flavor imparted to wine by β-ionone is a component of fruity / floral character of some of the most sought-after red wines of Bordeaux, Burgundy and the Rhone Valley. β-Ionone demonstrates potent anticancer activity as well as antifungal properties.

Ipsdienol has a balsamic, piney aroma. It is a major component of the floral fragrance of several species of orchids. Ipsdienol is also one of the major aggregation pheromones of the bark beetle in which it is believed to be a mating attractant.

Isoamyl Alcohol has a pungent, fermented type, fusel, alcoholic, etherial cognac aroma with fruity, banana and molasses notes. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. Its flavor is a fusel, fermented, fruity, banana, etherial and cognac.

Isoamyl Formate has a medium strength, ethereal, vinous, dry, earthy, fruity, green, plum, black currant aroma. As a flavoring it has a sharp, green, apple and fruity flavor with winey, fatty notes.

Isoborneol has a camphoraceous, sweet & musty, India ink-like aroma. It has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and some limited antimicrobial properties. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent for beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, and chewing gum.

Isomyrcenol has a fresh, floral, lime-like odor. Isomyrcenol is used in the chemical communication systems of the Spruce bark beetle, the Pinyon pine beetle and the Double-spined bark beetle.

Isopulegol has a medium strength odor that is minty, cooling and bitter-sweet medicinal. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent in candies and chewing gum. It is found in the hesperozygis rhododon shrub, as well as in eucalyptus citriodora. It is also commonly used in cosmetics.

Isovaleric Acid has a strong, pungent, sour, stinky feet, sweaty cheese smell. It is a major component of the cause of unpleasant foot odor. However, its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely in perfumery. Used as a flavoring it is cheesey, dairy, sweet creamy, fermented, waxy and berry. It has shown effectiveness as an anticonvulsant and antidepressant.

Limonene is found in high amounts in cannabis resin as well as tropical fruit rinds and many other fruits and flowers. Everyone is familiar with the odor of citrus resins. They explode into the air when a fruit is peeled. The exact odor is determined by the structure of the terpene. Plants use Limonene to repulse predators. For instance, flies have a group of receptors similar in function to the taste buds on our tongues. One of them detects noxious chemicals, and responds to Limonene as if it were toxic. This is hard wired into the flies brain. Limonene is a potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer agent. Limonene has been used clinically to dissolve gallstones, improve mood and relieve heartburn and gastrointestinal reflux. Limonene has been shown to destroy breast-cancer cells in lab experiments, and its powerful antimicrobial action can kill pathogenic bacteria. Limonene sprays are also used to treat depression.
Limonene is the second, third or fourth most prevalent terpene in almost all cannabis resins and it is a precursor to the synthesis of other cannabinoids. Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly appears in the bloodstream. Since Limonene is known to affect the permeability of the cell membranes, it allows more THC to reach brain cells and increases the absorption of other terpenes. Limonene’s design facilitates a direct response by quickly permeating the blood-brain barrier. The result is increased systolic blood pressure. One test, reported subjective alertness and restlessness.

Linalool has a floral scent reminiscent of spring flowers such as lily of the valley, but with spicy overtones. It is a terpenoid prominent in lavender. It is refined from lavender, neroli, and other essential oils. Humans can detect its odor at rates as low as one part per million in the air.
Linalool is being tested now for treatment of several types of cancer. It is also a component of several sedating essential oils including lavender oil which is believed to possess antianxiety and sedative properties. In tests on humans who inhaled it, it caused severe sedation. In tests on lab rats it reduced their activity by almost 75%. In addition to being a compound that counters anxiety and mediates stress, linalool is a strong anticonvulsant, and it also amplifies serotonin-receptor transmission, conferring an antidepressant effect. Applied topically, linalool can heal acne and skin burns without scarring.
Strains that are high in linalool may be particularly beneficial for patients who experience insomnia due to their sedating effects.

γ-Linolenic Acid has the slight, light aroma of vegetable oil. This is because it is a unsaturated fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils. It is sold as a dietary and health supplement, although there is very limited evidence of any effectiveness, and only as a slight anti-inflammatory and blood thinning agent.

Longifolene has a medium strength, sweet, woody, rosey, medical, fir needle odor. Longifolene is also one of two most abundant aroma constituents of lapsang souchong tea, because the tea is smoked over pine fires. The Norway spruce produces longifolene as it’s main product.

α-Longipinene has a pine aromatic odor. The Norway spruce produces high levels of α-Longipinene secondary to longifolene as it’s main product.

Menthol has a very strong, cooling, mentholic, minty, peppermint aroma and flavor. It is obtained from cornmint, peppermint or other mint oils. Menthol has local anesthetic and counter-irritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist. Menthol is responsible for the well-known cooling sensation it provokes when inhaled, eaten, or applied to the skin. In this sense, it is similar to capsaicin, the chemical responsible for the spiciness of hot chilis (which stimulates heat sensors, also without causing an actual change in temperature).

3-Mercapto-2-Methylpentanal has a very heavy, sulfurous, savory, alliaceous, garlic odor with tropical fruit and cultured dairy nuances. As a flavoring, it has a sulfureous, alliaceous, savory flavor with cooked onion and sauteed garlic notes and tropical fruit nuances of mango and passionfruit.

3-Mercapto-2-Methylpentanol has a very strong, sulfurous, onion type aroma. It is used in seasonings as a food additive, but not used as a fragrance. It is recommended to be smelled in a 0.10 % solution or less due to its strength.

Mercaptan is the main odor constituent added to assist in the detection of natural gas (which in pure form is odorless), and the “smell of natural gas” is due to the smell of the mercaptan thiol used as the odorant.

β-Mercaptoethanol Is an extremely strong and persistent aroma that has all the basic rotten-egg sulfur-stink notes. It is an extremely intestinal and skunk-like odor.

Mercaptoacetic Acid has an ugly, sharp, acrid, skunk smell with plenty of endurance.

Allyl Mercaptan has a high strength, sulfurous and alliaceous, sauteed onion and garlic aroma with roasted, grilled and charred meaty nuances. It is used as a flavor additive and is described as alliaceous onion, garlic and leek with meaty bouillon savory nuances.

Benzyl Mercaptan has a high strength, sharp, alliaceous, sulfuraceous, onion, garlic, horseradish aroma with mint and coffee notes. It is a flavoring and is described as a green, leek, horseradish, cabbage, tomato and coffee flavor.

Butyl Mercaptan has an extremely strong, fetid, extremely foul-smelling odor, commonly described as “skunk” odor. It is structurally similar to several major components of a skunk’s defensive spray but is not present in the spray itself. The scent of butyl mercaptan is so strong that the human nose can easily detect it in the air at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. Used as a flavor additive, it has a sulfureous, vegetative, savory meaty, garlic and onion taste.

Ethyl Mercaptan has a high strength, sulfurous, skunky odor with a slight fruity note.

Ethylene Mercaptan has a very high strength, sulfurous, skunky odor with a slight meaty note. It is so strong, it is recommend smelling it in a 0.01 % solution or less.

Furfuryl Mercaptan has a very strong, oily, fatty, roasted coffee, sulfurous skunky odor with a burnt match note. Used in flavorings, it is described as a sulfurous, roasted coffee, burnt match-like, rubbery, and slightly nutty flavor with eggy and savory meaty nuances.

Methyl Mercaptan has an extremely strong, sulfurous, decomposing cabbage, skunky aroma. It is used in flavorings and is described as sulfurous, alliaceous and creamy with a surface-ripened cheese topnote and a clean savory meaty depth.

Phenyl Mercaptan has a high strength, meaty, repulsive, penetrating, garlic, sulfuraceous odor with a rubbery, allicious backnote. Used in flavorings it is described as a meaty, phenolic taste with a burnt rubber sulfureous nuance.

Propyl Mercaptan has a high strength, alliaceous, natural gas, sweet onion, cabbage odor.

Thenyl Mercaptan has a high strength, roast coffee, fishy aroma. It is used as a flavoring agent where it has the flavor of coffee.

The spray of skunks consists mainly of low-molecular-weight Mercaptan thiols and their derivatives.

Methylbutenol has a very strong, suffocating, malty herb aroma. It is released in high concentrations from lodgepole pine trees.

Methyl Salicylate has a strong, distinct wintergreen aroma. Its flavor is sweet, salicylate and root beer like with aromatic and balsamic nuances. It is used as a fragrance, in foods and beverages, and in liniments where it is commonly used as a topical medicine for muscle, joint or soft tissue pain and inflammation.

Methyl-2-Methylvalerate has medium strength, fruity, sweet, berry, pineapple, apple, banana, green melon and tropical aromas. Used as a flavor additive in food, its taste is described as fruity, green apple, grape, bubble gum and pineapple-like.

3-Methyl-1-Butanol has an aroma that is slightly onion with gasoline, kerosene, rubber or burnt oil overtones.

γ-Muurolene has a medium strength, oily, woody type, herbal spice aroma. It is used in the chemical communication system of the Lucerne seed wasp and the European grapevine moth.

Nepetalactone has a valerian odor that is generally considered unpleasant by humans. It has a compound that resembles a component of a female cat urine odorant thought to mimic sex communication pheromones. It is one of the main attractants and stimulants in catnip which, when inhaled, incites wild play behavior in many cats (i.e., gets them ‘stoned’). It has also been shown to be an active repellent for cockroaches, and recent tests on yellow fever mosquitoes showed that it was 10 times more of an effective repellent than DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide), the most popular synthetic insect repellent.

Nerolidol has a mild, delicate odor that is floral, apple, rose, green and citrus-like with woody, waxy nuances. It can be found in ginger, niaouli and citronella. It is present as a low-level component in orange and other citrus peels. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. Its flavor has been described as green, floral and woody with fruity-citrus and melon nuances. It has antifungal, antileishmaniasis and antimalarial properties. It is also known to produce a sedative effect.

Nerol has a strong, fresh, wet seashore to sweet rose odor. It is a constituent of attar of roses, oil of orange blossoms and oil of lavender. It is used as a fragrance in cosmetics and as a flavor agent. Its flavor has been described as lemon, bitter, green and fruity with a terpy nuance.

Nonanaldehyde has a high strength, soapy, axy, aldehydic, citrus odor with a fresh, slightly green, lemon peel like nuance, and a cucumber fattiness. It is a component of perfumes, although it also occurs in several natural oils. Used in flavorings, its taste is an effervescent, aldehydic, citrus, cucumber and melon rindy with raw potato and oily nutty and coconut like nuances. It has been identified as a compound that attracts mosquitoes.

Nonanoic Acid has a high strength, unpleasant, racid, waxy, dirty and cheesy aroma with a cultured dairy nuance. Used as a cosmetic a fragrance and a flavor agent, its flavor is fatty, waxy and cheesy with a mild, sweet creamy background.

α-Ocimene has a medium strength, fruity, floral aroma with a wet cloth note. It is contributor to green odor of unripe mango and of mango ginger (Curcuma amada). It is used in oriental pickles.

β-Ocimene has a medium strength, tropical, green, terpy and woody odor with vegetable nuances. It is used as a flavoring agent where it has a green, tropical, woody flavor with floral and vegetable nuances. It is a flavor and fragrance additive as well as a common component in many essential oils.

β-cis-Ocimene has a medium strength, warm, floral, herbal, sweet, citrus-like aroma. It is a component of the chemical communication system of the tea weevil and cotton bollworm. It has shown some antioxidative properties.

β-trans-Ocimene has a mild, herbaceous, citrusy sweet, orange to lemon aroma. It is used in the chemical communication system of boxelders, a few beetles, and the Phytoseiulus Persimilis predatory mite.

Octanal has a very strong aldehydic waxy citrus green orange peel nuance. As a flavoring it is aldehyde and green with a peely, citrus, orange note.

Octanoic Acid has a very strong, musty, rancid, penetrating, fatty, waxy, oily, cheesy, sweat-like odor that is repulsive to most people. It is used as a cosmetic surfactant and as a flavoring agent for processed cheeses.

α-Phellandrene has a medium strength, terpenic, citrus, herbal, slightly green, black pepper-like odor. It is a flavor additive where it is described as a terpenic, citrus lime with a fresh green note.

β-Phellandrene has a medium strength, peppery-minty and slightly citrusy odor with a slight minty-terpentine note.

Phenylacetaldehyde has a very powerful and penetrating pungent honey-like sweet and green floral odor of passion fruit. It is found in buckwheat, chocolate and many other foods and flowers. As an additive its flavor is a honey, sweet, floral, chocolate and cocoa, with a spicy nuance. It has shown some antibiotic and antiasthmatic activity.

Phenylethanethiol has the high strength odor of rubber.

Phytol has a mild, light floral, balsamic, green jasmin, green tea type of aroma. It’s been shown to prevent Vitamin A teratogenesis.

α-Pinene is the familiar odor associated with pine trees and their resins. It is the major component in turpentine and is found in many other plant essential oils in noticeable amounts including rosemary, sage, eucalyptus and many others. Pinene is used medically as an expectorant, and topical antiseptic. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it acts as a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, it inhibits activity of a chemical that destroys an information transfer molecule. This results in better memory. Pinene also promotes alertness and memory retention. Largely due to the presence of pinene, rosemary and sage are both considered “memory plants.” Concoctions made from their leaves have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine to retain and restore memory. It is also a bronchodilator. A pharmacokinetics study of inhaled α-pinene in humans demonstrated 60% uptake, and a relative bronchodilation effect. The smoke seems to expand in your lungs and the high comes on very quickly since a high percentage of the substance will pass into the bloodstream and brain. It also increases focus, self satisfaction and energy, which generally counteracts with the presence of Terpineol. α-Pinene has inhibited acetylcholinesterase suggesting utility in the clinical treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

β-Pinene has a woody-green pine-like smell. β-Pinene is one of the most abundant compounds released by forest trees. It is one of the two isomers of pinene (The other being α-Pinene) and it shares similar properties.

Propanethiol has a high strength, alliaceous odor of cabbage, sweet onion and natural gas. It belongs to the group of thiols. It is colorless with a strong, offensive odor.

Pulegone has a minty-camphor odor and flavor that is used in the candy industry. It is implicated in liver damage in very high dosages. Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Thus, it stops the action of the protein that destroys acetylcholine, which is used by the brain to store memories. It may counteract THC’s activity, which leads to low acetylcholine levels. The result is that you would forget more on THC alone than you would on THC accompanied by Pulegone.

Sabinene has a medium strength, warm, oily-peppery, woody, herbaceous and spicy pine odor with citrus notes. In flavoring it is oily, citrus and tropical fruity. It is found in oak trees, tea tree oil, black pepper and is a major constituent of carrot seed oil.

Sabinene Hydrate has a medium strength, herbal, cooling, minty, eucalyptol, green and terpy odor with a spicy nuance. It is used as a flavor additive and has a cool, minty, camphoreous, woody green, and oily flavor. It is also used in fragrances and cosmetics.

cis-Sabinene Hydrate has a medium strength balsamic odor.

trans-Sabinene Hydrate has a medium strength, more woody, balsamic odor.

Safranal is the component primarily responsible for the aroma of saffron. Its flavor is a woody, medicinal, phenolic, spicy and camphoreous with a fruity herbal nuance. Safranal is an effective anticonvulsant an agonist and it exhibits high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as well as cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. It has also been shown to have antidepressant properties.

α-Selinene has the distinct odor of amber. It is one of the principal components of the oil from celery seeds. It has shown analgesic antioxidant and antifungal activity with antimicrobial potential.

α-Sinensal has a medium strength, citrus orange, mandarin aroma. Its flavor is an orange, waxy and juicy citrus with a bitter peel nuance.

β-Sinensal has a medium strength, sweet, fresh, waxy, citrus, orange juicy odor. It is mainly used in fragrances.

β-Sitosterol has a charastic waxy aroma. It is a plant sterol with a chemical structure similar to that of cholesterol. It is found in pecans, avocados, pumpkin seeds, cashews, corn oils, and soybeans. It has shown anti-inflammatory properties.

α-Terpineol has a lilac, citrus or apple blossom to lime odor. It is used extensively in the perfume industry. Terpineol however, is often found in cannabis with high pinene levels. Therefore, its odor is very often masked by the pungent aromas of pinene. It is a minor constituent of many plant essential oils. It is also used in soaps for fragrance. It reduces the capability for movement by 45% in lab rat tests. It was also shown to be deeply sedating upon inhalation. This may partially account for the couchlock effects of some cannabis although it is not usually associated with body highs.

Terpineol-4-ol has a pleasantly herbaceous, peppery, woody odor and is used in commercial fragrances. Terpineol-4-ol is used in fragrances for spice types. It is considered the primary active ingredient of tea tree oil. It is the compound of highest concentration in the essential oil of nutmeg. It also occurs in oil of cypress, juniper berry, Ceylon cardamom, marjoram, thyme, and a few others. It has been shown to act as an AChE inhibitor and as an antibiotic.

α-Terpinene has a refreshing, lemony-citrus aroma. It has been isolated from cardamom and marjoram oils.

γ-Terpinene has a herbaceous, citrusy sweet aroma. It is commercially extracted from tea tree oil. γ-Terpinene shows antimicrobial properties against various human pathogens. It has also been studied for it’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities.

Terpinolene has a medium strength, herbal aroma that has been described as fresh, woody, sweet and piney with a hint of citrus. Its flavor is a sweet, woody, terpy, lemon and lime-like with a slight herbal and floral nuance. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. Its use in fragrances in the USA alone exceeds 50,000 lb/yr. Terpinolene is used in soap, detergent, creams, lotions, and perfume.

Thiophenol is the extremely potent, extremely persistant, foul-smelling, pure essence of burning rubber.

Thymol has the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme. It is found in oil of thyme, and extracted from Thymus vulgaris (common thyme) and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant, aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol is a natural monoterpene phenol derivative of Cymene.

α-Tocopherol has a very bland, slight, vegetable oil-like odor. α-Tocopherol is the most active component of the vitamin E complex, and this organic substance is the most powerful antioxidant in the lipid phase of the human body. α-Tocopherol acts very effectively to deactivate free radicals and stop chain reactions before they can run away.

Tonka Undecanone has a medium strength, sweet, spicy, balsamic, tonka woody tobacco green aroma.

Undecanal has an intensely soapy, aldehydic, waxy and slightly effervescent orangey citrus-like odor with a watermelon, pineapple and cilantro background. As an additive, its flavor is Waxy, aldehydic and soapy with a citrus note and slight laundry detergent nuance. Undecanal is a common component of perfumes.

Valeraldehyde has a fermented type, diffusive, bready, fruity odor with berry nuances. Used as a flavoring agent, its flavor is a winey, fermented, bready, cocoa with chocolate notes.

Verdoxan has a medium strength odor of earthy, fruity, green, herbal, sawen old wood. It is used in fragrances and cosmetics.

α-Ylangene has a spicy, fruity aroma. It is a natural substance often found in wine and is emitted by some plants. It has shown both antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

The main differences between terpene profiles of evaluated strains belonging to the two principal biotypes are:

‘mostly indica’ strains were characterized by dominancy of β-myrcene, present in high relative contents, with limonene or α-pinene as second most abundant terpenoid

‘mostly sativa’ strains were characterized by more complex terpene profiles, with some strains having α-terpinolene or α-pinene as dominant terpenoid, and some strains having β-myrcene as dominant terpenoid with α-terpinolene or trans-β-ocimene as second most abundant terpenoid.

Breeding for specific terpenoids in plants is a fascinating research topic. In fact, the various biological activities of these compounds make the analysis of terpenoids a valuable tool for improving a considerable number of traits in cultivars of Cannabis.
Testing for these terpines is like making a recipe-book for a Chef. They tell you what the ingredients are in the dish, and in which quantities.

This image has been resized. Click this bar to view the full image. The original image is sized 607×606.

The “Entourage effect” of Cannabis.
The clinical contribution of cannabinoids different than THC, terpenoids and flavonoids to clinical cannabis effects has been espoused as an “entourage effect” (Mechoulam and Ben-Shabat 1999). While THC remains the most psychoactive compound found in Cannabis, all other substances present in the plant (in particular cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids) also have unique properties that will ultimately influence the effects that Cannabis has on us.

Many times patients using Cannabis as medicine have reported that a specific plant genetic seems to have better therapeutic properties on them than other ones available. When compared, those Cannabis varieties had similar cannabinoid profile (content of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD). So if the difference is not in the cannabinoid content, it must lie in the “entourage” of other substances present in the plant in order to explain the difference perceived by various patients.

Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Entourage Effects
Ethan Russo MD
British Journal of Pharmacology
http://cannabisclinicians.org/wp-con…ffect-2011.pdf

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids
Mahmoud A. ElSohly
School of Pharmacy at the University of Mississippi
http://www.alchimiaweb.com/blogfr/wp…d-Medicine.zip

Terpenoids for medicine
Justin Fischedick
Leiden University
https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bit…df?sequence=23

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (IV): cannabinoid-free plants
E. P. M. de Meijer, K. M. Hammond, A. Sutton
http://www.csatc.org/linksofinterest/deMeijer20092.pdf

Talking Terpenes | High Times – Martin Lee
www.hightimes.com/read/talking-terpenes

Marijuana Breathalyzer Expected To Hit The Streets In 2016

Marihuana Breathalyze 2016

A research team at Washington State University has been developing a breathalyzer that could accurately detect whether a driver is under the influence of marijuana.

Police officers use blood tests to determine if a driver has THC in their system, usually administered at the police station. Blood tests can take up to 24 hours for results.

In Washington state where recreational marijuana is legal, Initiative 502 set the legal limit for 5 nanograms of active THC per mililiter of blood.

Currently, police officers are limited in their choices of reliable portable THC measurement technology in the field. Washington state cops have indicated they would be open to a new portable breathalyzer, but only if it was accurate and reliable.

WSU Chemistry professor Herbert Hill is leading the research team through a second round of testing with the goal of making their marijuana breathalyzer available in 2016.

Hill says the test is designed for immediate accurate results for THC, not the metabolite that is more likely to stay in a person’s system for weeks, and can give false positives.

 

Source: Weedhorn

Exploring the Cannabis Clubs of Southern Spain, Europe’s New Weed Destination

Over the last five years, Spain has come to rival the Netherlands as Europe’s cannabis hub. The country’s legal framework around weed, which allows its use and sale within private members clubs, has been fully taken advantage of in the north of the country, particularly in the Catalonia region, where clubs reportedly make an estimated $6 million in sales each month.

These private spliff societies—which, unlike Amsterdam’s coffee shops, only allow entry to members, rather than any old sweat-suited stoner straight off an EasyJet flight—haverisen in number from around 40 in 2010 to over 700 today, according to smokers’ groups. And just as America’s “cannabis revolution” was initially centered around California and Colorado before spreading boisterously throughout a number of other states, southern Spain is now also enjoying its very own network of private members cannabis clubs.

I recently visited the pearl of south, Marbella, to get to grips with what a burgeoning “green economy” looks like on the ground, and how a number of British nationals are playing their part.

Arriving in Marbella, it didn’t take long to notice the amount of “cannabis expats”—foreigners who’d moved to Spain’s sunny south to take advantage of freedoms not afforded to them in their home countries. One British guy who calls himself Paz (which, fittingly, means “peace” in Spanish) is in the process of opening a new association in Marbella, and also founded the online community “Medical Cannabis Spain.”

His intentions—as you may have guessed from the name—are centered around improving access for medical users of plant, as opposed to catering to recreational users. There are very few clubs focusing solely on medicinal cannabis products, so Paz hopes to open a location that will operate purely as a medical dispensary, and perhaps one day serve as a model for future clubs with a medical slant.

“I was recently informed that only two of 38 associations in Marbella were actually catering for medical, nonsmoking consumers,” Paz told me, alluding to the range of cannabis products that can be ingested without inhaling the smoke of burning plant matter. “Medical patients can still struggle to receive the right medication, but it’s a changing culture worldwide, so I do expect this to change.”

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While Paz was realistic about the current access available to medical cannabis patients in Spain, he was optimistic about the country becoming the most important player in Europe’s cannabis scene. “With the sun, the solar technology, and the cultivation skills, if you were planning things on a resource-based viewpoint, then you would select Spain to supply the whole of Europe,” he said.

Considering Marbella’s Andalucía region is nearly on the same latitude as the legendary cannabis-filled Emerald Triangle in California, boasting similar conditions and climate for cultivation, he isn’t far off.

Away from Paz and his medicinal aspirations, there are plenty of clubs following the established Dutch model of simply providing somewhere for weed smokers to get high. However, locations here vary tremendously compared to those in the Netherlands’ capital. While the majority of canal-side coffee shops are characterized by their wooden bars, neon signs, and complete lack of natural light, those in Marbella range from the unpretentious to the upmarket. There’s the Honey Bud Club, for example, a pretty standard space with a pool table and a painting of Tupac on the wall; all the way up to Joe’s Marbella Smokers Club, which looks a bit like the VIP lounge of a Milton Keynes nightclub.

Cannabis capsules and butane hash oil in Verde

I had a contact at Verde (“green” in Spanish), a club that—like most others—focuses on the recreational and social aspects of cannabis consumption. The building its housed in is perfectly innocuous, with a small buzzer at the door for guests to announce their arrival. Inside, the place is reminiscent of one of Amsterdam’s coffee shops—dark, with a neon back-lit bar—only slightly more homely.

I sat down with Verde’s British manager, Levi, and asked him what the Verde association stands for. “Our ethos is that we are a relaxed, very social, English- and Spanish-speaking environment for people interested in cannabis,” he said. “Everyone is welcome, whether you are a smoker or nonsmoker; whether you are a heavy consumer or partake occasionally—all providing you meet the requirements to become a member.”

So what does the average member look like? “Dubai, London, Paris, the US; pretty much name a country and we will probably have a member from there,” Levi answered. “These guys are all from a mad variety of backgrounds—some businessmen, some lawyers, some hippie stoners… all sorts. We even have one member, who I obviously can’t give any details about, who’s a senior CEO with over 1,000 people employed beneath him. [Our members’] ages range from 21 to 60, including people who use cannabis medically.”

A “Sublimator” pipe in Verde

Looking around, Verde’s patrons certainly didn’t look like stereotypical stoners. Mind you, the more time you spend in that world, the more you realize there’s really no such thing as a stereotypical cannabis user.

Behind the counter there were a huge number of products that reflected the variety in clientele: organic medicated body creams, infused jellies, caramel slices, cakes, biscuits, and CBD capsules—CBD being the chemical component of cannabis believed to have a range of medical applications. Alongside this new breed of products were your standard selection of sativas, indicas, and hybrid flowers—some of them grown organically, some hydroponically—as well as homemade hash, resin, and dry sift, and the on-trend butane hash oil and “shatter,” all made with latest technology shipped in from the States.


So is Spain catching up with the US in terms of cannabis production and variety? “Probably not yet, but there is certainly great potential for Spain to be a leading cannabis market in Europe at least,” said Levi.

Domestically, why has the rest of Spain lagged behind the north’s progress? “The movement had its roots in the north, and with Barcelona being a main city of the north with a relatively big population, it really took off there,” Levi told me. “Now, other parts of Spain are catching on to the movement because of the success in Barcelona. Other local authorities have seen the experiment in Barcelona and have decided whether [or not] they want the same happening in their province.”

A local government’s political leaning plays a large part in how easy it is for clubs to operate unmolested. Malaga’s right-wing local authority has been shutting down the clubs with force, for instance, while authorities in Marbella have generally left them to flourish peacefully, hence why it’s proving a popular destination for people hoping to open a private members association.

Inside Marbella’s Organic Cannabis Club

The Organic Cannabis Club (OCC) is one association that has experienced the problems caused by inconsistent local policy firsthand. The club’s founder and only member of staff, Dominique, who’s originally from the Netherlands, first opened a club in Malaga, but was forced out of the area by police. I met her recently at her new club in Marbella—a bright, airy space with its own terrace overlooking the beach—which is proving to be much less stressful than her previous location.

“Malaga is one of the only places in Spain where the raids are being done by the local police and not the national police. It makes no sense there,” said Dominique. “I’m just glad to be out of Malaga. Here, the atmosphere is much better. Much more relaxed.”

She told me how the development of cannabis clubs will come on even stronger if, in November, the country votes out the current conservative government. Mariano Rajoy’s People’s Party, said Dominique, is the only thing holding the clubs back. “Public opinion leans towards supporting the private club system,” she argued. “In Barcelona, the mayorsuddenly announced that he would close down 80 percent of the cannabis clubs right before the election. You know what happened? He’s not the mayor any more.”

The OCC’s cannabis safe

Of course, it’s highly unlikely that Xavier Trias was replaced by Ada Colua earlier this year purely because of his views on cannabis clubs. But considering the associations in Catalonia, of which Barcelona is the capital, reportedly boast over 165,000 members (about 2 percent of the Catalonian population) it’s clear that there’s a dedicated network of patrons in the area.

Dominique told me that associations in other areas should use this as inspiration if they want to develop, saying that clubs could become far more influential if they worked together politically. “I think we should get together properly as a united front in order to have lobbying power with local and national governments,” she said. “When we become a significant united body, politicians will listen to us in order to get votes in the elections—but if we are all just hiding, they won’t do anything for us.”

Visiting Marbella, I found a community optimistic about its place in Spain’s cannabis scene, but aware of the fact that there are still a number of forces working against it. So much has changed within the past five years, and there’s scope for more in the half decade to come. However, as Dominique made me realize, that change might never be realized unless there’s a concerted, communal effort from all involved.

 

Fuente: VICE

THCV May Affect Your High, Study Finds

New research on the cannabinoid THCV shows that it may reduce the effects of THC.

While almost all marijuana users are familiar with the effects of THC, new findings show why you may want to pay attention to another compound known as tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV).

THCV

THCV is one of many cannabinoids found in cannabis and is often measured during laboratory testing. But up until now, little was known about the effects of THCV — both psychological and otherwise.

Interestingly, a new study published Nov. 17 in the Journal of Psychopharmacology seems to show that THCV works against THC to dampen the high.

While the sample size was small — the study only involved 10 participants — the results showed that combining doses of THCV with THC overwhelmingly resulted in a high that felt “less intense” compared to THC alone.

THCV also seemed to protect against other common effects of THC, including memory impairment and increased heart rate.

Interestingly, THCV seemed to have no psychoactive effect when taken alone. In fact, participants in the study were unable to distinguish doses of THCV from a placebo.

The authors — a group of scientists from King’s College London — say that this seems to contradict older research published in the 1970s, which suggested THCV might have weak psychoactive properties.

Nevertheless, the latest findings suggest that THCV may offer a similar sort of protection as CBDwhen it comes to reducing the psychoactive effects of cannabis.

According to testing results from the 2014 High Times Cannabis Cup in Seattle, many sativa strains have noticeable levels of THCV. In fact, this may explain the uplifting and energizing effect that sativa strains are known for.

So, for the growing number of people seeking marijuana with a less potent high, strains with significant THCV levels may be a good place to start.

Fuente: LeafScience