Publicaciones de la categoría: Marihuana medicinal

UPyD promete despenalizar el cannabis en España

UPyD ha presentado ya su programa electoral en el que se incluye la despenalización de la marihuana. No es la primera vez que esta fuerza política del parlamento español habla de regular la situación del cannabis en España.

Su actual líder Andrés Herzog, como la anterior Rosa Díez, se han mostrado partidarios de que esta medida este presente en su programa. UpyD es una formación del centro del arco parlamentario y con su nuevo jefe de filas esperan estar otra vez presentes en la nueva legislatura y si es posible superar los datos anteriores.

Así con la presentación del programa electoral, UpyD pasa a ser otro de los partidos políticos que en España aboga por otro tratamiento por parte de estado con el cannabis.

Estiman que el cannabis será el cultivo más rentable de Colombia

La decisión para legalizar el cannabis para uso medicinal en Colombia dependerá de los ajustes que se apliquen al borrador del decreto que está creando el Ejecutivo, texto que se filtró el 13 de noviembre a los medios de comunicación. El ministro de Agricultura, Aurelio Iragorri, informó que el crecimiento del cultivo dependerá de la demanda internacional y de la regulación del Estado.

“El mercado de esos productos tiene un crecimiento exponencial en el mundo, por lo que estoy convencido de que va a jalonar de manera importante la actividad en la economía colombiana. Nosotros fuimos los reyes en la producción ilegal, ahora tenemos la oportunidad en la parte legal”, explicó Iragorri.

Por otro lado, el presidente de la Sociedad de Agricultores de Colombia (SAC), Rafael Mejía, opinó que la propuesta era adecuada y que el país podría convertirse en una potencia para suministrarle al mundo. “La demanda de marihuana ya es muy grande, el reto está en poder mantenerla dentro de las normas para que no se salga del plano de la salud, lo que implica un control muy complejo”, manifestó.

El presidente de DrugScience (formalmente el Comité Científico Independiente sobre Drogas), Jon Gettman, reveló que en Colombia la marihuana estimula más el mercado que el maíz y el trigo juntos (US$30.800 millones). Por lo tanto, es visto como el cultivo más rentable en la actualidad.

El director científico de Cannamedic, Camilo Borrero Martínez, cultiva, procesa y comercializa seis productos derivados del cannabis en su propio laboratorio. “La reglamentación es una oportunidad para grandes y pequeños, para proteger nuestra propiedad intelectual”, determinó Borrero, quien tiene años tramitando los permisos. Su empresa se creó en 2009 y es una de las 15 registradas en el país; sin embargo, lucha para que su producto sea visto como medicinal y no se compare con el del mercado negro.

El profesor de Toxicología de la Universidad Nacional, Jairo Tellez, advirtió que podrían haber problemas si personas naturales manipulan la planta. “Es como pretender producir antibióticos en casa”, dijo. De igual forma, el procuradorAlejandro Ordoñez y el presidente del Congreso, José David Name, desaprobaron la regulación del cannabis porque puede llegar a incentivar el uso recreativo.

Solo este año Colombia exportará US$2.200 millones entre el mercado de flores y el de plátanos. Se estima que si se llega a legalizar la droga, el negocio de la marihuana medicinal podría equivaler a ese comercio

CÁÑAMO, UN ALIMENTO MILENARIO RESCATADO DEL OLVIDO

El cáñamo como alimento de consumo humano se remonta mucho en el tiempo. En el más antiguo tratado agrícola chino, el Xiao Xia Zheng, ya se tiene constancia de su consumo como alimento. En torno a los años 4.000 -5.000 antes de Cristo se puede ubicar el uso del cáñamo junto a otros cultivos como mijo, trigo, frijol y arroz en diferentes partes de China. La siembra, cultivo y procesamiento se desarrollaron muy rápidamente y se convirtió en una especie de manejo bastante avanzado, obteniéndose todo tipo de productos incluida la pólvora.

Puesto que la mayoría de éstas y otras especies de uso humano fueron domesticadas, es fácil imaginarlas muchísimo más atrás en el tiempo pero como aprovechamiento de recogida silvestre y nómada. El cáñamo se extiende y crea grandes áreas de cultivo silvestre, por lo que las poblaciones migratorias se aprovechaban de este recurso estacional en las vastas superficies de las llanuras de Asia. Pues bien, desde la antiquísima China hasta nuestros días el cáñamo ha sido utilizado en todas las culturas pero algunas no lo incorporaron como alimento, en un principio.

Vamos a explicar un poco por que el cáñamo es un alimento tan valioso como para captar la atención desde miles de años atrás de la Medicina Tradicional China, que es un referente en nutrición para el resto del mundo.

El cáñamo es un alimento proteico completo, puesto que se define como tal a aquellas proteínas que proveen los 8 aminoácidos esenciales: Leucína, lisina, metionina, fenilalanina, treonina, valina, triptófano, histidina, tirosina, isoleucina y selenocisteína.

Estos aminoácidos junto con otros se encadenan tal y como el ADN va ordenando. Una dieta sin uno de ellos a la larga provoca enfermedad y la muerte.

El cáñamo no es la única semilla que los contiene todos en el embrión, el lino también, pero en lo que es único el cañamón es en que el 65 % de él está compuesto de Edestín Globulina, y es la semilla con mayor contenido proteico de esta clase en todo el reino vegetal. Sin embargo a pesar de ser más energética, digerible y adecuada para el cuerpo que la carne, ésta proteína animal sigue siendo quien domina los recursos en la tierra, agotando suelos, agua y creando gran contaminación.

Como alternativa a la carne, el cáñamo es la mejor opción, pero mientras el mercado y el consumidor no estén preparados para el cambio, la inercia del sistema actual basado en proteína animal seguirá siendo enorme y moviendo económicamente otros sectores. Por eso requeriría de una profunda renovación y autocrítica, que tal vez sólo sea posible bajo una situación de crisis realmente definitoria, es decir un contexto en que nuestras decisiones fuesen vitales y transcendentales.

La globulina es una proteína simple que se encuentra en las semillas y en la sangre animal, pero la Edistina es la globulina de las plantas. Pues bien las globulinas junto a albumina se clasifican como proteínas globulares, las cuales son esenciales para crear las enzimas, anticuerpos, hormonas, la hemoglobina y fibrogin (necesario para la coagulación). Todas estas proteínas son la “ Esencia de la Vida ” puesto que son sobre quienes recaen las funciones imprescindibles del organismo.

La albumina, la globulina y el fibrogin son los tres tipos de proteínas plasmáticas más importantes.

Quiere esto decir que estas tres proteínas representan el 80% de la parte sólida del plasma sanguíneo y sirven ni más ni menos que como reserva rápida de aminoácidos para cualquier tejido corporal que lo necesite de forma inmediata a través de la sangre. El cáñamo es un alimento ideal para ser consumido a todas horas, porque siendo tan digerible puede transportar esa reserva rápidamente a los tejidos mientras éstos los necesiten todo el tiempo que dure el esfuerzo.

Estas propiedades de asimilación tan asombrosas demuestran que perfectamente puede plantearse el cáñamo como una herramienta para combatir el hambre y la desnutrición crónica en niños y ancianos que ya están en fase aguda de desnutrición, casi irrecuperables para muchos expertos.

La albumina en la semilla, actúa como el “combustible” que emplea el embrión hasta que puede disponer de la energía fotosintética, y está ubicada entre el embrión y la cáscara, y por otro lado, la edestín globulina dentro del embrión garantiza que la nueva vida disponga de las enzimas necesarias para su actividad metabólica.

Pues bien, la globulina es la tercera proteína en abundancia del organismo y realiza muchas funciones enzimáticas dentro del plasma, pero lo más importante es que es responsable tanto de la inmunología natural como de la adquirida, con la que el cuerpo hace frente a los agentes patógenos invasores. En este sentido el cáñamo consumido regularmente, sería un alimento preventivo de enfermedades infecciosas porque mantiene un adecuado suministro de globulinas que el cuerpo puede incorpora rápidamente al plasma.

El cuerpo usa proteínas de globulina para fabricar anticuerpos con que atacar a los agentes infecciosos o antígenos.

Tanto ella como la gamma-globulina son esenciales para un sistema inmunológico saludable y fuerte, y esto es muy importante, que pueda neutralizar tanto a los patógenos como a las toxinas.

Las globulinas alfa, beta y gamma transportan los materiales que necesitan las estructuras del cuerpo dañadas o desgastadas para regenerarse. Y las inmuno-globulinas son la primera línea de defensa del cuerpo contra la enfermedad y la infección, cuyos agentes negativos, deben atravesar el sistema linfático antes de llegar al torrente sanguíneo y por eso las defensas deben ser sanas y fuertes para contenerlos antes de que sea tarde.

Al incorporar en nuestra alimentación las proteínas durante la digestión se descomponen en aminoácidos, los cuales son llevados y usados para crear nuevas proteínas específicas donde las necesidades del cuerpo humano lo requieran.

El cuerpo humano necesita aminoácidos en cantidad suficiente para crear globulinas, y han de estar siempre disponibles, porque pueden ser suficientes para prevenir enfermedades por deficiencia de ellos, pero puede que no haya suficientes para crear las inmuno-globulinas con las que rechazar una infección repentina. El cuerpo debe tener suficiente material de aminoácidos, y lo mejor es comer alimentos ricos en proteínas de globulina para que el cuerpo pueda crearlas a su vez.

Un 65% de Edestin Globulina y algo de albúmina en el cañamón nos lo pone fácil y muy disponible de un modo parecido al del plasma sanguíneo.

Un cuerpo alimentado de este modo mantiene un nivel de prevención sobre infecciones bastante alto.

El cáñamo provee al cuerpo todos los aminoácidos esenciales necesarios así como los tipos y cantidades adecuadas para crear albúmina sérica ( del suero humano) y sero-globulinas como la gamma-globulinas de gran valor inmune. La importancia de esta última es tal, que se buscan individuos muy sanos para aislarla de su sangre y proveerla por ejemplo a niños que padecen cáncer y cuyas defensas han quedado muy débiles por efecto de la radioterapia y quimioterapia. Incluso estas gamma-globulinas aportan inmunidad temporal al paciente si provienen de personas que han superado enfermedades como hepatitis o varicela.

Personas que sufren enfermedades de inmunodeficiencia, podrían mejorar e incluso sanar, y esta conclusión se sustenta en que la deficiencia nutricional causada por tuberculosis se mitiga eficientemente tratando con semillas de cáñamo al paciente. Ésta es una severa enfermedad que por bloqueo nutricional llega a producir que el cuerpo se consuma a si mismo.

Germinado de semillasGerminado de semillas

La habilidad del cuerpo para resistir y recuperarse de una enfermedad depende de cuán rápido puede generar masivas cantidades de anticuerpos con que defenderse en el primer ataque del antígeno. Si la materia prima con la que creamos la proteína de globulina es insuficiente, el ejército de anticuerpos tal vez sea muy bajo como para prevenir y evitar que comiencen los primeros síntomas de enfermedad.

Es decir, si ante los primeros síntomas, simplemente nos nutrimos con un aporte extra de cañamones o bien de aceite, atajamos el avance de la enfermedad de forma radical, si no ha llegado a extenderse más allá del sistema linfático.

De todas las semillas de plantas que existen, la semilla del cáñamo es las más importante proveedora de materia prima con que sintetizar globulina, la de mayor contenido en el reino vegetal. Comiendo regularmente cañamones, aseguraremos que el sistema inmunológico posea una reserva de suministros de inmuno-globulina necesarios para garantizar que los anticuerpos destruyen la enfermedad y mantener un nivel adecuado de prevención contra enfermedades producidas por patógenos..

Más adelante, seguiremos con la química nutricional del cáñamo pasando de los aminoácidos, tratados en este, a los Ácidos Grasos Esenciales o EFAs en el siguiente capítulo, que son vitales e imprescindibles para la salud humana si deseamos que ésta sea óptima.

A todas las ventajas que posee la planta desde el punto de vista bioquímico en su composición hay que añadirle el hecho de que puede ser cultivada sin necesidad de productos fertilizantes ni insecticidas que podrían contaminar una fuente tan pura de recursos alimenticios.

La planta del cannabis sativa posee una raíz pivotante profunda que extrae nutrientes del suelo y por tanto aunque agradece muy bien el nutriente, sobre todo el orgánico, no es obligado o imprescindible el abono químico de síntesis.

Por otro lado, libera unas sustancias llamadas terpenos que aunque no es un veneno actúan como repelente para muchos insectos por lo que la planta pierde atractivo. El cáñamo también sufre plagas de hongos, insectos y animales que comen sus hojas, pero su asombrosa capacidad de rebrote siempre permite una pronta recuperación, ya bien de sus hojas o bien del tallo.

Es por tanto es un cultivo óptimo para agricultura orgánica libre de contaminantes, siempre que el suelo y el agua también lo sean, por lo que se debería haber apostado más por él.

Sin embargo su conocido uso para pienso de aves y el olvido de todo lo que fue tradicional en la vida rural en general, no le dan su merecida posición en la sociedad actual, aunque la humanidad le debe mucho agradecimiento.

Muchos países como Canadá si le han dado un gran valor al cultivo para uso alimentario, y es que allí hay un alto nivel de conciencia, como demuestran su millón doscientos mil habitantes semi-vegetarianos.

Existe una amplia gama de productos y multitud de compañías que ofertan alimentos de cáñamo tanto en Canadá, como en Estados Unidos y Europa.

Puesto que la cáscara es muy fuerte por ser un tejido altamente lignificado, la proteína de cáñamo se consume pelada o también se puede decir decorticada.

Esta cubierta o aquenio, es a la escala de la semilla del cáñamo como el de la nuez. Incluso es llamado “ Hemp Nut” en los países anglosajones porque su sabor recuerda en cierto aspecto al de las nueces. Además, ese vocablo permite al consumidor diferenciar ese producto de un cereal, ubicándolo más correctamente en su diferencia botánica ya que el cáñamo no se parece en nada a los granos de trigo, cebada o el de cualquier otro grano al que estamos acostumbrados.

No es de la familia de las gramíneas sino de las cannabáceas, por eso no contiene gluten.

Como decíamos, la semilla pelada es algo que antes no se conocía por la dificultad técnica que implicaba cualquier transformación compleja.

Tradicionalmente en África al interrumpir la lactancia materna durante el destete se daban a los bebés “ Porridge” o gachas de cañamones para así seguir incorporando en el niño el gammalinolénico que también contiene la leche de la mujer.

La palabra “Gacha”, es una traducción muy precisa y descriptiva del modo en que se consumía, porque es harina disuelta en agua o en leche. En el sur de España es un plato muy tradicional ligado a tiempos difíciles, de escasez. La gacha manchega de almortas (titos o chícharos), de garbanzo, la gacha andaluza de trigo. En Cataluña había unas gachas muy nutritivas que se hacían para las cuadrillas de obreros con cáñamo y garbanzos. Todas éstas se hacen con agua y también se llaman polenta o “grits”.

Pero cuando se disuelve la harina en leche se llama con más propiedad gacha y las más comunes en todo el mundo son las de avena y sémola.

Pues bien, como en África se usaban las semillas enteras, un método para disolver la blanda proteína del cáñamo era cociéndola lentamente en leche. Una vez toda disuelta, se pasaba la papilla por un colador para apartar la dura cascarilla. Así los bebés recibían el mejor y más perfecto aporte para su pequeño cuerpo.

Actualmente muchas compañías dedicadas a la alimentación de cáñamo ofrecen harina como un formato sencillo de preparar, pero hay otros modos de consumirlo.

Las semillas de cáñamo molidas son una pasta grasa debido al su alto contenido en aceite, por lo que es necesario eliminarlo, por tanto el subproducto del prensado de semillas de cáñamo para aceite, es lo que llamamos torta. Es perfecta para añadir al pan y los platos en su cocción.

La harina de cáñamo no levanta, no tiene gluten y no se comporta como una normal utilizada para hacer el pan. Por entero en una masa no es posible utilizarla sino que hay que mezclarla con otras harinas a no ser que quieras hacer una torta o galleta plana. En una mezcla de 3:1 cáñamo/trigo produce un pan rico pero fuerte y pesado en 7:1 logramos una hogaza de pan normal con toques de cáñamo y un ligero sabor acompañando.

También se fabrica pasta de cáñamo, galletas, chocolatinas, cereales enriquecidos, yogures, mantequilla, queso blanco vegetal y tofu, así como leches, batidos y helados.

En verdad es que el cáñamo es asombrosamente manejable y más versátil que la soja con mucha diferencia por no hablar de su contenido libre de alergénicos y sin transgénicos.

El cáñamo es una planta llena de beneficios, pero también compleja en su manipulación y muy burocrática. Quiere esto decir por un lado que desde un punto de vista de sus cuidados higiénico sanitarios es muy exigente puesto que el riesgo de que se estropee existe, no es bajo, y si es peligroso un enranciamiento o contaminación, si no se siguen unas normas básicas de eludir exposiciones al sol y a la temperatura.

Por otro lado la Administración, tanto española como europea e incluso en países tan avanzados como Canadá, pecan de ignorantes a la hora de tratar a los granjeros, transformadores y envasadores. Pero sobre todo las instituciones españolas muestran una sensibilidad que deja mucho que desear, mostrando unas lagunas de desconocimientos que no evidencian ninguna rigurosidad ya que parecen obviar del todo los criterios científicos y técnicos.

Muchos esforzados agricultores son acusados de cultivar marihuana y siempre se les trata como si la duda estuviera justificada en torno a si lo que hacen es licito o no, y esto ocurre porque como es una planta de infinita bondad y recursos múltiples, roza la incredulidad en gentes ignorantes sobre dichas capacidades.

En el siguiente capítulo seguiremos profundizando en éste área de la nutrición. Hay muchas personas luchando en este sector del cáñamo tradicional en muchas partes del mundo que requieren del apoyo de los consumidores para poder mantenerse en esa lucha, por eso muchos productos incluyen “ Gracias por sostenernos”

Si ya no tenéis dudas de lo necesario y vital que resulta esta vieja-nueva planta para estar lo más sanos y felices que podamos no tardéis ni dudéis en poneros en contacto para ayudaros a incorporarlo en vuestra dieta diaria.

Deseando lo mejor para tod@s y para la tierra que tanto nos necesita me despido con la esperanza de haber sido útil y que se logre comprender mejor la urgencia de luchar para lograr entre todos un mundo mejor alimentado y más justo en el que a nadie, sobre todo a los más débiles e indefensos, les falte esta maravillosa proteína en su vida.

Fuente: CannabisMagazine

Estiman que el Cannabis será el cultivo más rentable de Colombia

La decisión para legalizar el cannabis para uso medicinal en Colombia dependerá de los ajustes que se apliquen al borrador del decreto que está creando el Ejecutivo,texto que se filtró el 13 de noviembre a los medios de comunicación. El ministro de Agricultura, Aurelio Iragorri, informó que el crecimiento del cultivo dependerá de la demanda internacional y de la regulación del Estado.

Cannabis.

“El mercado de esos productos tiene un crecimiento exponencial en el mundo, por lo que estoy convencido de que va a jalonar de manera importante la actividad en la economía colombiana. Nosotros fuimos los reyes en la producción ilegal, ahora tenemos la oportunidad en la parte legal”, explicó Iragorri.

Por otro lado, el presidente de la Sociedad de Agricultores de Colombia (SAC), Rafael Mejía, opinó que la propuesta era adecuada y que el país podría convertirse en una potencia para suministrarle al mundo. “La demanda de marihuana ya es muy grande, el reto está en poder mantenerla dentro de las normas para que no se salga del plano de la salud, lo que implica un control muy complejo”, manifestó.

El presidente de DrugScience (formalmente el Comité Científico Independiente sobre Drogas), Jon Gettman, reveló que en Colombia la marihuana estimula más el mercado que el maíz y el trigo juntos (US$30.800 millones). Por lo tanto, es visto como el cultivo más rentable en la actualidad.

El director científico de Cannamedic, Camilo Borrero Martínez, cultiva, procesa y comercializa seis productos derivados del cannabis en su propio laboratorio. “La reglamentación es una oportunidad para grandes y pequeños, para proteger nuestra propiedad intelectual”, determinó Borrero, quien tiene años tramitando los permisos. Su empresa se creó en 2009 y es una de las 15 registradas en el país; sin embargo, lucha para que su producto sea visto como medicinal y no se compare con el del mercado negro.

El profesor de Toxicología de la Universidad Nacional, Jairo Tellez, advirtió que podrían haber problemas si personas naturales manipulan la planta. “Es como pretender producir antibióticos en casa”, dijo. De igual forma, el procurador Alejandro Ordoñez y el presidente del Congreso, José David Name, desaprobaron la regulación del cannabis porque puede llegar a incentivar el uso recreativo.

Solo este año Colombia exportará US$2.200 millones entre el mercado de flores y el de plátanos. Se estima que si se llega a legalizar la droga, el negocio de la marihuana medicinal podría equivaler a ese comercio.

Fuente: CannabisMagazine

Amplio alcance del turismo de marihuana en Estados Unidos

Colorado cannabis Tours llena rutinariamente sus autobuses. Los pasajeros pueden elegir una clase de cocina, una demostración de soplado de vidrio, o una visita a un centro de cultivo.

Los asientos llenos, el pequeño autobús turístico circula por las concurridas calles de Denver, exponiendo a sus pasajeros una demostración de soplado de vidrio. O también pueden elegir una clase de pintura, clase de cocina o visitar una granja de cultivo

Este autobús es una fiesta llena de humo y de gente feliz, huele a una residencia de estudiantes de arte. El soplador de vidrio tatuado elabora bongs y pipas de alto precio. La clase de cocina es para gourmets que quieren dar sabor a su cocina con marihuana. La creatividad de los pintores se agudiza por el cannabis. Y la granja de cultivo es de 40 000 pies cuadrados con una gran”facilidad de cultivo” y de uno de los principales productores de cannabis de Colorado.

Es la siguiente fase incipiente del cannabis legalizado: el turismo de marihuana. Y está alcanzando nuevos máximos en Colorado, en el Estado de Washington y en el de Oregon, con viajeros procedentes de estados que se frustrado la legalización y de otros por la lentitud con la que el movimiento de la legalización de la marihuana trabaja.

“Es una locura cómo muchas personas vienen aquí para esto”, dijo Heidi Keyes, un artista que dirige el Puff, Pass, y la clase de pintura para Colorado cannabis Tours, y que ahora se está expandiendo en Washington y Oregón.

La versión a la gira de degustación de vinos del siglo XXI, el turismo de marihuana proporciona una forma para que los empresarios capitalicen la marihuana legalizada sin la molestia de las regulaciones que controlan el cultivo y la venta de la misma directamente (y no por casualidad, llegan realmente nombres ingeniosos para los negocios).

Eso incluye el transporte (el Cannabus, Seattle; Mary Jane Tours, Telluride), alojamiento (the Bud and Breakfast; the Wake & Bakery Inn, both in Denver), guías personales (Colorado Cannabis Concierge), y las ferias y festivales (la Copa Cannabis , Portland, Ore., y en otros lugares).  Ski Buds Shuttle Service  amenizará su paseo a las pistas en Vail, incluyen recogida en el aeropuerto que le llevará desde su vuelo a Denver a una tienda de marihuana al por menor antes de que esté incluso vaya a su hotel. También hay planes en Colorado para un estilo de bodega “weederies” con tiendas de regalos y restaurantes, y un complejo de estilo de campamento de cannabis programado para abrir el próximo año.

“Para alguien que, digamos, veinteañero que disfruta del cannabis, la idea de que puede ir a un lugar donde puedan consumir legalmente y no verse tratado como un criminal por hacer algo que es demostrablemente menos peligroso que el consumo de alcohol, es atractivo “, dijo Kris Krane, un defensor de la legalización y socio gerente con sede en Boston de 4Front Advisors, una empresa de consultoría que trabaja con las empresas relacionadas con la marihuana.

La venta de la marihuana con fines recreativos es ahora legal en Colorado, Washington y Oregón, y está previsto que comience en el 2016 en Alaska. (Un referéndum para legalizar el uso recreativo y venta de marihuana será en Massachusetts en el 2016, y los posibles beneficios del turismo son algunos de los argumentos de los partidarios que están a favor de ella.)

cannabusUnos $ 700 millones en marihuana se vendieron en Colorado el año pasado, y Oregon predice sobre $ 257 millones en ventas este año. Los defensores dicen que el turismo de marihuana ayudó a elaborar el récord de 15,4 millones de visitantes y $ 4.6 mil millones en Denver solo el año pasado.

“Estas son las nuevas Ámsterdam del mundo”, dijo Eli Bilton, propietario de Attis Trading Co., un dispensario de marihuana en Portland, que también está empezando una empresa turística y busca lugares para abrir una “420-Este bed-and-breakfast” . Y mientras que el negocio apenas está comenzando allí, la marihuana recreativa se hizo legal en Oregon el 01 de octubre – “Ya estamos viendo un montón de forasteros”, dijo Bilton.

Las restricciones tales como la prohibición en Colorado en publicidad interestatal son entre muchos obstáculos enfrentados para esta industria naciente. ¿Otro? Las leyes, la que dicen que mientras que los visitantes pueden comprar las marihuana, no pueden fumar en sus hoteles.

Fiel a su estilo, astutos han descubierto maneras de evitar la norma: Encuentran alojamiento en 420-amigables en Airbnb o a través de empresas como Colorado cannabis Tours, que Keyes dijo haber reservado 1.700 habitaciones en hoteles amistosos con el cannabis solo entre julio y septiembre.

La gente que viene desafiando los estereotipos, dijeron los operadores de viaje. “Es por todo el lugar”, dijo Keyes. “Los profesionales de negocios, parejas de 35 a 55 años. Tuvimos una chica de 20 años que vino con sus abuelos, que eran de 80 años.”

El noventa por ciento de los pasajeros en el Cannabus de Seattle son de fuera del estado, dijo el director de marketing deNate Johnson“Tenemos un montón de gente de Boston y Nueva York.” Y mientras que los funcionarios debaten si se debe permitir cafeterías o salones del estilo Ámsterdam, donde la gente sería capaz de fumar libremente, el Cannabus transporta a sus pasajeros a un cultivo y a continuación a un dispensario de venta donde se pueden degustar diferentes cepas y comestibles, y luego a un “punto de visión” que domina la ciudad, donde se puede disfrutar de lo que Johnson llama “el punto más alto.” Luego los lleva a un restaurante.

“Mucha gente no quiere el dolor de cabeza de tomar un taxi y no saber a dónde ir”, dijo Johnson.”Tomamos el dolor de eso, y te llevamos a algún lugar si tienes el deseo de picar.”
Eso aún es mejor que una ruta del vino, dijo Keyes, quien realizó una gira de vino una vez en la que recuerda a alguien vomitando en el autobús. “Eso no ocurre con la marihuana. La gente está en calma, se están riendo, están teniendo un buen momento “.

descarga (13)Boosters dice que el turismo de la marihuana está ayudando por el hecho de que la mayoría de los lugares en los que la marihuana es legal también tienen otra empates – senderismo y esquí en Colorado, la pesca en Washington y Oregon.

“Las personas atraídas por actividades al aire libre tienden a ser un poco más atraídas por cannabis en general”, dijo Krane. “Si el cannabis se legaliza de repente en el centro de Siberia, es probable que se vea un gran repunte en el turismo.” Estados incluyendo Colorado se jactan de tener “un montón de actividades hermosas que realizar: la montaña, la nieve, el senderismo, el centro de Denver, y ahora se agrega a esto la oportunidad de probar todo este nuevo entorno de la marihuana recreativa “, dijo Chris Carroll, co-propietario de de Denver 2 Chicas Tours, que también ofrece tours de marihuana y cuya Wake and Bakery Inn está programado para abrir en abril .

Los defensores dicen que también hay algo de aventura al visitar los turistas las operaciones de cultivo una vez que sólo lo han visto en las noticias y en las películas de narcos.

“La gente que va a una bodega quieren ver cómo se hace el vino y los que vienen quiere conocer la forma natural del cannabis también “, dijo Krane. “A esto se añade el hecho de que esta es una industria que ha sido ilegal durante tanto tiempo, que ha estado en las sombras y en espacios de almacenes y garajes ocultos. Esto no es algo donde a la gente se le ha invitado para ver el proceso. Y ahora tienen la oportunidad de verlo de una manera que era completamente imposible de ver hasta ahora “.

Would you move your family to another country across the world, to give your children a better life? Or would you take the chance of prosecution by using Cannabis oil illegally?

Click on the picture to can watch the video:

Video Medical Marihuana Cannabis

One year later, patients swear by medical marijuana

BETHEL — First, it was testicular cancer. Then tumors were found in his lungs.

And when those had finally shrunk — thanks to an aggressive chemotherapy and radiation — Brian Tomasulo learned that the cancer had spread to his brain.

After collapsing at work one day in May 2014, the Newtown resident was rushed to the hospital, where he had surgery to remove an egg-sized tumor from his frontal cortex.

The surgery was successful, but when Tomasulo woke up, he had a whole new set of challenges to deal with.

“I didn’t have thoughts in my brain,” he said. “I didn’t know what things were. I didn’t know what my phone was. I had to relearn how to do everything, how to talk, how to do one-plus-one… At 33 years old, that was very frustrating.”

Tomasulo would soon find an improbable medicine to help him cope with the “brutal” days after the surgery. He decided to try medical marijuana.

Tomasulo, a personal trainer who resumed work a few months ago, was one of the first patients at Bethel’s Compassionate Care Center, the first and only medical marijuana dispensary in Fairfield County.

Tomasulo now says marijuana not only helps him with the pain and anxiety, but has stopped his tumors from growing.

“This is just a different way of killing the cancer,” he said. “It’s a better way that makes me feel good, not tired, not groggy.”

‘Saving lives every day’

A year after the center opened its doors, an increasing number of patients have seen similar results, business owner Angela D’Amico said.

“We’re saving lives everyday,” she said. “Every day there’s another tear that comes down my face.”

The facility on the corner of Garella Road and Route 6 is one of only six medical marijuana dispensaries in Connecticut. There are also four licensed marijuana growers in the state.

Studies have shown that cannabis can slow the growth and/or kill certain types of cancer cells growing in laboratory dishes, but there is not enough evidence that marijuana helps control or cure the disease, according to the American Cancer Society.

Still, more and more cancer patients have seen their tumors stop growing after using medical marijuana.

“The proof is in the pudding,” D’Amico said.

Another one of her patients is Orange resident Michael Mizzone, 53, who has ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. He said marijuana has reduced his anxiety and muscle cramping, and has improved his blood circulation and appetite.

Mizzone was diagnosed with the disease in December 2013. After doing extensive research into medical marijuana, he became a regular patient at the Bethel facility as soon as it opened in September 2014.

“I was skeptical at first, as most people are,” he said.

Unlike many ALS patients, Mizzone can still walk, exercise and drive.

Who gets medical pot?

There are 11 debilitating medical conditions approved by the state Department of Consumer Protection for treatment with medical marijuana, including cancer, Crohn’s disease and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Connecticut’s program has more than 6,700 patients, with at least 1,600 of them in Fairfield County.

At the Bethel dispensary, the number of patients has more than tripled since the first weeks of business, D’Amico said.

Those patients must have state-issued cards authorizing them to use medical marijuana; otherwise they can’t go in the building without state approval.

When the business first opened, D’Amico only offered the marijuana plant — or flower. Now there are more than 70 different items, including capsules, oils, edibles, e-cigarette liquids, breath strips and other products.

D’Amico said such products are increasingly popular because many people don’t want to smoke the plant.

“As the patient gets more and more educated about cannabis, they switch away from the flower,” she said.

Her oldest patient is a 90-year-old woman with cancer who uses cannabis oil for pain relief.

Tomasulo mostly uses the oil, which he puts under his tongue for headaches, but he sometimes smokes marijuana for faster relief. He uses oil with higher CBD levels in the morning and a higher THC level at night.

CBD, or cannabidoil, can help treat seizures, reduce anxiety and counteract the “high” caused by THC.

Changing perceptions

Bethel resident and former U.S. Marine Dan Gaita, who uses medical marijuana for post-traumatic stress disorder, said he used to take 13 pills a day. Now he takes only one.

Gaita criticized the “naysayers” who oppose medical marijuana and prevent marijuana programs from expanding and reaching potential patients.

“People need to educate themselves,” he said. “They are still operating off of information that was put out by church groups in the ‘70s.”

Last spring, Bethel zoning officials took several steps to control any potential expansion of the marijuana business in town. The Planning and Zoning Commission approved a one-year moratorium on applications for new medical marijuana dispensaries, marijuana-growing centers, expansion of the existing facility and new recreational marijuana establishments.

D’Amico, who said she has no plans to expand the building, is planning a “Cannabis 101” presentation for the public to learn about medical marijuana. In the meantime, she said, Bethel residents are welcome to get a tour of the dispensary.

“I welcome everyone in Bethel to come into our facility and see the face of medical marijuana,” she said. “We service amputees, quadriplegics… This is no joke here. This is the wave of the future.”

D’Amico said she has about 300 patients who were able to stop using opiates when they started using medical marijuana.

“The pharmaceutical industry is killing our country,” she said. “They prescribe oxycodone as if it’s candy. We are slowly getting hundreds of patients off pain management and off sleeping pills.”

Her facility also offers holistic care, including yoga, meditation, reiki and massage.

“We don’t just treat the body,” she said. “We do nutrition, we treat the mind, body and spirit.”

Source: CTPost

The Terpenes of Cannabis Their Aromas and Effects

THC activates the CB2 receptor, which regulates immune function and the peripheral nervous system. But this is not the reason people feel stoned when they smoke marijuana; instead, what causes the high is THC binding to the CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and the central nervous system. Stimulating the CB2 receptor doesn’t have a psychoactive effect because CB2 receptors are localized predominantly outside the brain and central nervous system. CB2 receptors are present in the gut, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands, and reproductive organs. Marijuana is such a versatile medicinal substance because it acts everywhere, not just in the brain.

In 2008, the Swiss scientist Jürg Gertsch documented beta-caryophyllene’s binding affinity for the CB2 receptor and described it as “a dietary cannabinoid.” It is the only terpenoid known to directly activate a cannabinoid receptor (which is one of the reasons why green, leafy vegetables are very healthy for people to eat). The dual status of beta-caryophyllene as a terpenoid and a CB2 activator underscores the synergistic interplay between various components of the cannabis plant. There are many, many chemical compounds in marijuana, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids (which give fruit skin its color). Each has specific medicinal attributes, which combine to create a holistic “entourage effect,” so that the therapeutic impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts. Certain terpenoids dilate capillaries in the lungs, enabling smoked or vaporized THC to enter the bloodstream more easily. Nerolidol, a sedative terpenoid, is a skin penetrant that increases permeability and potentially facilitates cannabinoid absorption when applied topically for pain or skin conditions. Terpenoids and cannabinoids both increase blood flow, enhance cortical activity and kill respiratory pathogens – including MSRA, the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that in recent years has claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Americans. Dr. Russo’s article reports that cannabinoid-terpenoid interactions “could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal, and bacterial infections.”

Marijuana’s bouquet of terpenes – that “riot of perfumes,” as the poet (and hashish eater) Arthur Rimbaud once said – plays another important role: Terpenes buffer THC’s psychoactivity. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid interactions can amplify the beneficial effects of cannabis while reducing THC-induced anxiety. Some people can’t handle THC dominant marijuana, while others enjoy the relaxed intensity of the cannabis high. However, Most everyone would prefer organically grown bud with its tangy, antioxidant-rich mixture of cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids, as opposed to Marinol, the pure synthetic-THC pill. For nearly everyone who has tried both, the experience of THC alone compares poorly to that of THC combined with terpenes and other components of the cannabis plant.

THC activates the CB2 receptor, which regulates immune function and the peripheral nervous system. But this is not the reason people feel stoned when they smoke marijuana; instead, what causes the high is THC binding to the CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and the central nervous system. Stimulating the CB2 receptor doesn’t have a psychoactive effect because CB2 receptors are localized predominantly outside the brain and central nervous system. CB2 receptors are present in the gut, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands, and reproductive organs. Marijuana is such a versatile medicinal substance because it acts everywhere, not just in the brain.

In 2008, the Swiss scientist Jürg Gertsch documented beta-caryophyllene’s binding affinity for the CB2 receptor and described it as “a dietary cannabinoid.” It is the only terpenoid known to directly activate a cannabinoid receptor (which is one of the reasons why green, leafy vegetables are very healthy for people to eat). The dual status of beta-caryophyllene as a terpenoid and a CB2 activator underscores the synergistic interplay between various components of the cannabis plant. There are many, many chemical compounds in marijuana, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids (which give fruit skin its color). Each has specific medicinal attributes, which combine to create a holistic “entourage effect,” so that the therapeutic impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts. Certain terpenoids dilate capillaries in the lungs, enabling smoked or vaporized THC to enter the bloodstream more easily. Nerolidol, a sedative terpenoid, is a skin penetrant that increases permeability and potentially facilitates cannabinoid absorption when applied topically for pain or skin conditions. Terpenoids and cannabinoids both increase blood flow, enhance cortical activity and kill respiratory pathogens – including MSRA, the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that in recent years has claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Americans. Dr. Russo’s article reports that cannabinoid-terpenoid interactions “could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal, and bacterial infections.”

Marijuana’s bouquet of terpenes – that “riot of perfumes,” as the poet (and hashish eater) Arthur Rimbaud once said – plays another important role: Terpenes buffer THC’s psychoactivity. Cannabinoid and Terpenoid interactions can amplify the beneficial effects of cannabis while reducing THC-induced anxiety. Some people can’t handle THC dominant marijuana, while others enjoy the relaxed intensity of the cannabis high. However, Most everyone would prefer organically grown bud with its tangy, antioxidant-rich mixture of cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids, as opposed to Marinol, the pure synthetic-THC pill. For nearly everyone who has tried both, the experience of THC alone compares poorly to that of THC combined with terpenes and other components of the cannabis plant.

Relation between Terpenes and Cannabinoids

According to several sources, eating a good ripe mango 45 minutes before smoking cannabis increases the effect of the herb. This could be explained by the presence of Myrcene in mangos, which acts in synergy with the THC. However, you should select a very good variety of mango, because only a few have essential oil rich in myrcene (Cavalo 57.1%, Rose 52.4%, Sword 37.2% and Paulista 30.3%) Also, if the mango is not very ripe the myrcene level will be too low to notice its interaction.

THC and the other cannabinoids have no odor, so the cannabis fragrance depends on which terpenes predominate. Thus far, focus has only been placed in one area or another… first THC, now CBD. I believe this is foolish as I intend to show that many many compounds contribute to the healing properties of the plant. To focus on only one aspect is a waste of time. Chemically extracting or isolating the healing properties from single compounds simply cannot be done with cannabis due to the various terpene mixes and the fact that most terpenes have healing properties that also follow the “entourage effect”.

It’s not just about THC or CBD. Cannabis is a mix of many different compounds. Most of them fall into three categories: cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavanoids. Each of these compounds can significantly modify the therapeutic benefits of the plant. There are hundreds of different chemical combinations each producing a different effect. Meschler and Howlett (1999) discussed several mechanisms by which terpenoids modulate THC activity. For instance, some terpenoids bind to cannabinoid receptors sequestering THC by perturbing annular lipids surrounding the receptor, or by increasing the fluidity of neuronal membranes, and increasing cell wall permeability. Other terpenoids alter the signal by remodeling G-proteins. And then there are terpenoids that alter the pharmacokinetics of THC itself. Terpenoids may also act on other receptors and neurotransmitters. Some terpenoids act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (as does Prozac), some enhance norepinephrine activity (as do tricyclic antidepressants), some increase dopamine activity (as do monoamine oxidase inhibitors and bupropion), and some augment GABA (as do baclofen and the benzodiazepines).

Properties of Cannabinoids

Δ8-THC (∆8-Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic

Δ9-THC (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) Analgesic, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antiepileptic, Anti-proliferative, Antipsychotic, Antinausea, Antineoplastic, Antispasmodic, Anxiolytic, Appetite stimulant, Anti Glaucoma, Helps with Neuropathic pain.

Δ9-THCA (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) Anti-proliferative, Antispasmodic

Δ9-THCV (∆9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin) Anorectic, Antiepileptic, Bone stimulant

CBC (Cannabichromene) Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative, Bone stimulant

CBCA (Cannabichromic Acid) Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory

CBD (Cannabidiol) Analgesic, Antidiabetic, Antiemetic, Antiepileptic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-ischemic, Antimicrobial, Antineoplastic, Anti-proliferative, Antipsoriatic, Antipsychotic, Antispasmodic, Anxiolytic, Bone stimulant, Immonosuppressive, Intestinal anti-prokinetic, Neuroprotective, Vasodilative

CBDA (Cannabidiolic Acid) Anti-inflammatory, Anti-proliferative

CBDV (Cannabidivarin) Anticonvulsant, Bone stimulant

CBG (Cannabigerol) Antimicrobial, Anti-proliferative, Bone stimulant

CBGA (Cannabigerolic Acid) Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial

CBN (Cannabinol) Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Sedative

CBL (Cannabicyclol) Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial

AEA (Anandamide) is an often missed endocannabinoid found in the human body. Anandamide is the brain’s own THC (just like “endorphin” is the brain’s own morphine). Anandamide has only been found in two plants – Cacao (chocolate) and Cannabis. The name Anandamide is taken from the Sanskrit word (and Hinduistic religious term) ananda, which means “joy, bliss, delight”, and amide.
Anandamide regulates the functions of our central nervous system and our immune system. AEA regulates appetite, memory, sensations of pleasure and pain, our immune system, and sleep patterns. It also inhibits certain cancers, such as breast cancer in humans. It is used in the drug therapy of hypertension and cerebrovascular spasms, as myocardial protective agents, and in the relaxation of uterine spasms. Research suggests that anandamide plays a role in the making and breaking of short-term connections between nerve cells, and this is related to learning and memory. Animal studies suggest that too much anandamide induces forgetfulness. This suggests that if substances could be developed that keep anandamide from binding to its receptor, these substances might be used to treat memory loss or even to enhance existing memory.

THC and the other cannabinoids have no odor.

Terpenes

Buchbauer et al. (1993) assayed the sedative effects of over 40 terpenoids upon inhalation by mice; linalool was the most powerful, reducing mouse motility 73% after 1 hour of inhalation. The study demonstrated that other terpenoids found in cannabis, such as citronellol and α-terpineol, are also deeply sedating upon inhalation, even in low concentrations. Furthermore, combinations of these terpenoids are synergistic in their sedative effects. These terpenoids may mitigate the anxiety provoked by pure THC. Inhalation of such terpenoids also provides antidepressant effects (Komori et al. 1995).

β-Myrcene has an odor that is variously described as an aroma of hops, clove like, earthy, green-vegatative, citrus, fruity with tropical, mango and minty nuances. The various odors are the result of slight differences in the overall makeup. All of these flavors and odors are commonly used to describe Cannabis.
β-Myrcene is the most prevalent terpene found in most varieties of marijuana but it is not found in hemp. It is present in significant concentrations in cannabis resin itself. It is also found in mango, hops, lemon grass, East Indian bay tree, and verbena. Because of its appealing fragrance, myrcene is used extensively in the perfume industry. Myrcene has antimicrobial, antiseptic, analgesic, antioxidant, anticarcinogen (It blocks the actions of cytochrome, aflatoxin B and other pro-mutagens that are implicated in carcinogenesis.) and anti-inflammatory properties. It has shown some promise when used as an antidepressant, or as an additive to other antidepressant drugs and is also used in massage therapy as a muscle relaxer.
Myrcene is a synergist of THC: A combination of the two molecules creates a stronger experience than THC alone. Myrcene affects the permeability of the cell membranes, thus it allows more THC to reach brain cells and increase the absorption of other terpenes. This terpene contributes strongly to the infamous “couch-lock” experience.

Acetanisole has a medium strength, sweet, anisic, vanilla-like aroma with powdery, balsamic and benzaldehyde nuances. Used in flavoring, it has been described as a sweet, anisic, fruity and cherry with powdery vanilla nuances.

Acetic Acid has an irritating, pungent, stinging, acidic, sour odor of vinegar. It is the main component of vinegar apart from water. In fact, Vinegar is simply dilute Acetic acid. Acetic acid also has the distinctive sour vinegar taste.

Phenyl Acetic Acid has a sour yet sweet, waxy, civet, honey, rosey, floral odor similar to honeysuckle with notes of chocolate and tobacco. It is also used in cosmetics for perfuming. Used as a flavoring, it has been described as sweet, floral, chocolate and honey with tobacco notes.

Anethole has a very strong, sweet, anise, licorice aroma. It is used in a wide variety of fragrances and flavors. It has a sweet, anise, and spicy licorice flavor with a lingering, sweet aftertaste. Anethole has shown some antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

α-Bisabolol has a weak, tangy, fresh and clean, citrus, floral, sweet aroma with a peppery note, and is used in various fragrances. It is the primary constituent (up to 50%) of the essential oil from German chamomile. It has shown anti-aging, anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, antibiotic and anticancer activities.

β-Bisabolol has a medium strength, citrus, floral, tangy, lemon, fresh, sweet, herbaceous aroma. It is used in the chemical communication system of the Cotton boll weevil. It has shown anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal and antimutagenic activities.

Borneol smells much like the menthol aroma of camphor and is easily converted into it. In Chinese medicine herbs containing borneol are recommended for fatigue and overstress. Borneal is considered a “calming sedative” in chinese medicine. It is directed for fatigue, recovery from illness and stress. It is found in small quantities in many essential oils. Comercially it is derived from artemisia plants such as wormwood and some species of cinnamon.

α-cis-Bergamotene Has a strong odor of ground black pepper. It is an aroma component of many species of the family orchidaceae. It has also shown some antioxidant activity

α-trans-Bergamotene has a medium strength, warm, tea-leaf-like odor. It is used in the chemical communication system of some species of aphids.

Butanoic Acid OR Butyric Acid has a unpleasant, acrid odor normally found in perspiration, flatulence and rancid butter. It is the primary cause of the foul smell associated with human vomit as it is one of many stomach acids that helps break down food for energy, and it is a common addition to stink bombs for this reason. It is actually used as a flavoring to my personal surprise, where it is described as acidic sour, cheesy, dairy and creamy with a fruity nuance.

(Methyl Thio) Butyrate has an odor that is sulfurous with egg and cheese notes, and tomato, tropical-fruit top notes. Used in flavorings, its taste is a musty, sulfureous, Limburger-type cheese top note, with a metallic cheese body. Some have described the odor as a sulfury, cheeseish, putrid cabbage or garlic.

α-Cadinene has a pungent, smokey, woody, guaic wood-like odor. It is listed by the FDA as a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption. It has shown some antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimalarial activities.

γ-Cadinene has an herbaceous, herbal, woody aroma. It has shown some antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Many species of termites and a few beetles utilize γ-Cadinene in their chemical communication systems.

Camphene has a pungent, herbal, fir needle smell. It’s odor has been described as camphoraceous, cooling, piney woody with terpy nuances. It has citrus and green minty and green spicy notes. Camphene is used in fragrances and food additives. Its flavor has been described as Camphoraceous, cooling and minty with citrus and green spicy nuances. It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such as turpentine, cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil, neroli, ginger oil, and valerian.
Its mid-19th century use as a fuel for lamps was limited by its explosiveness.

Camphor has a very characteristic odor for which the tree is named. The most recognizable product that contains the extracts of camphor are medicated chest rubs, which have the same distinct scent. It is a strong, penetrating, persistent odor. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent in chewing gum and hard candy. The therapeutic properties of camphor oil are analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cardiac, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hypertensive, insecticide, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge and vulnerary.

Capsaicin in its pure form is odorless. It is an irritant for mammals, known for the sensation it provokes when inhaled, eaten, or applied to the skin. In this sense, it is similar to menthol (which stimulates the bodys sensors without causing an actual change in temperature). Capsaicin is used as an analgesic in topical ointments and dermal patches to relieve pain and as an anti-inflammatory.

Δ-3-Carene has a medium strength, sweet, pungent citrus odor. It is a constituent of pine and cedar resin but is found in many other plants including rosemary. In aroma therapy, cypress oil, high in D-3-Carene, is used to dry excess fluids, tears, running noses, excess menstrual flow and perspiration. It is thought to be at least partially responsible for the dry mouth and eye problems that are common side effects experienced by some cannabis users.

Dextro-Carvone has a spicy, bready, caraway aroma. It is found in mandarin peel oil and gingergrass oil. It is the principal constituent (60-70%) of the oil from caraway seeds.

Laevo-Carvone has a sweet, minty, herbaceous, spearmint odor. L-Carvone is found in spearmint and kuromoji oils. It is used extensively in chewing gums and flavor oils such as spearmint, but is also used in spice and floral fragrances for air fresheners, perfumes, shampoos, deodorants, body wash, laundry detergents, cosmetics and toothpaste.

Castoreum Absolute has a very strong, sweet and smokey, animal leathery odor.

Carvacrol has the characteristic pungent, warm odor of oregano. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent and its flavor has been described as spicy, herbal, phenolic, medicinal and woody. Carvacrol is responsible for the biological activities of oregano. Carvacrol exhibits many diverse activities such as: antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, AChe inhibitory, antielastase, insecticidal, antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities.

β-Caryophyllene has a sweet, woody and dry clove odor and tastes pepper spicy with camphor and astringent citrus backgrounds. It is a major terpene found in black pepper, clove and cotton. It is found in smaller %’s in many other green, leafy vegetables, herbs, and spices. Caryophylene contributes to black pepper’s spiciness. Caryophylene oil is also used industrially to enhance tobacco flavor.
Caryophylene, given in high amounts, is a calcium and potassium ion channel blocker. As a result, it impedes the pressure excerted by heart muscles. As a topical it is analgesic and is one of the active constituents that makes clove oil, a preferred treatment for toothache. It does not seem to be involved in mood change, however caryophyllene shows great promise in a salve or lotion as a therapeutic compound for inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders because of its ability to bind directly to the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2.

Caryophyllene Oxide has a lemon balm odor. It has shown some effectiveness as an insecticidal/anti-feedant and as broad-spectrum antifungal in plant defence. Caryophyllene oxide has the distinction of being the component responsible for cannabis identification by drug-sniffing dogs.

Acetyl Cedrene has a medium strength, warm, woody, amber musky aroma. It constitutes up to 20% of some fragrance concentrates.

α-Cedrene has a medium strength, woody, sweet, fresh aroma of cedar. It is used in bakery items, sherbet and sorbet. It is a major component in the essential oil of cedar.

α-Cedrene Epoxide has a medium strength, woody, amber, tobacco, sandalwood, fresh patchouli aroma. It is commonly used as a fragrance agent and a perfuming agent for cosmetics.

β-Cedrene has a medium strength, woody, fresh aroma of cedar. It is a major component in the essential oil of cedar.

Cedrol has a very faint aroma that is sweet, soft, dry and cedarwoody. Studies have shown cedrol to show deeply sedative effects when inhaled. Cedrol is a major component of cedarwood oil. It is found in the essential oil of conifers, especially in cypress and juniper. It has also been identified in Origanum onites, a plant related to oregano.

Cinnamaldehyde has a very strong, spicy, sweet cinnamon odor, and it gives cinnamon its flavor. It occurs naturally in the bark of cinnamon trees and other species of the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamaldehyde constitutes 90% of the essential oil of cinnamon.

α-hexyl-Cinnamaldehyde has a medium strength, sweet, floral, green, jasmin, citrus and fruity aroma with powdery, tropical or spicy notes. As a flavoring it is sweet, waxy, floral and green with citrus and fruity nuances.

α-amyl-Cinnamaldehyde has a medium, sweet floral, oily, fruity, herbal, jasmin, tropical aroma. Used in flavorings it is tropical, waxy, floral, rosy and honey-like with a fruity nuance and body.

Cinnamic Acid has a weak balsamic, sweet, storax, honey-like odor. It is obtained from oil of cinnamon, or from balsams such as storax.

Cinnamyl Alcohol has a medium strength, cinnamon spice, floral, green and fermented odor with powdery balsamic nuances. As a flavor component it has a green, floral, spicy and honey flavor with a fermented yeasty nuance.

Ethyl Cinnamate has a medium strength, sweet, balsamic, spicy, powdery, fruity, berry, plum odor. It is used as a flavoring agent, where it has a balsamic, powdery, fruity, berry, punch, spice, sweet and green flavor with an amber note.

Citronellol has a floral, rosy, sweet, citrus with green, fatty, terpene nuanced odor. Used in flavorings it has a floral, rose, sweet, green with fruity citrus nuanced flavor. In studies it was shown to be deeply sedating upon inhalation.

Citronellal makes up up to 80% of the leaf oil from Kaffir lime leaves and is the compound responsible for its characteristic aroma. Citronellal has a high repellent effectiveness against mosquitoes and other insects. It is also shown to have strong antifungal qualities. Citronellal is the main component that gives citronella oil its distinctive lemon-lime scent.

α-Curcumene has an odor of Turmeric. It is found prominantly in the Zingiber genus of Ginger. It is one of the main active ingredients of both Turmeric and Ginger oils.

γ-Curcumene has an earthy aroma. It is found prominantly in the Libocedrus bidwillii tree of New Zealand. It is one of the main active ingredients of both Turmeric and Ginger oils.

p-Cymene has a musty tang of terpenes with an orange to carrot odor, although synthetic p-Cymene can have a turpentine-like odor. It has shown Antibiotic, Anticandidal and AChE inhibiting properties. p-Cymene is a constituent of a number of essential oils, most commonly the oils of cumin and thyme.

Decanal has a very powerful, waxy, orange-peel, citrus like, sweet, aldehydic odor. It is used in fragrances and flavoring. Its flavor is a waxy, fatty, citrus and orange peel with a slight green melon nuance. Decanal occurs in nature and is an important component in citrus along with octanal, citral, and sinensal.

Dehydrovomifoliol has a fruity and flowery odor. It has shown some cytostatic and antiviral activity.

Diallyl Disulfide has a strong, alliceous, onion and garlic-like odor with metallic nuances. Highly diluted, it is used as a flavoring in food. Its flavor is green onion and garlic-like with meaty nuances. It is an organosulfur (organic compounds that contain sulfur) derived from garlic. It is also one of the main components of the distilled oil of garlic. Diallyl disulfide has many of the health benefits of garlic, but it is also an allergen causing garlic allergy.

Dihydroactinidiolide has a fruity, musky, coumarin tea-like, peach aroma. It is a flavoring agent for food and tobacco and used in tea flavors, berry flavors, other fruit flavors, brown flavors, seaweed, tomato and beer. It has shown antiproliferative effects.

Dimethyl Disulfide has a high strength, sulfurous, rotten garlic, cabbage or onion type of aroma. Dimethyl disulfide along with dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are compounds given off by the plant known as dead-horse arum. Flies are attracted to the odor of fetid meat the combination of the three make, and they help pollinate this plant.

Eicosane has a waxy odor. It is used in fragrance concentrates. It is the shortest compound found in paraffin waxes used to form candles. It is also used in insect repellent.

β-Elemene has a medium strength, sweet aroma. The parenteral form of β-elemene is isolated from Rhizoma zedoariae, a type of ginger, although It is a volatile terpene found in botanicals such as celery, mint, and it is prevalent in a variety of medicinal plants. It has strong antiproliferative anti-cancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors.

Ethylmethyl Acetic Acid has a medium strength, acidic fruity, dirty, cheesey, fermented odor with the strong nuance of roquefort cheese. It is used as a flavoring with a fruity, dirty, acidic flavor with a dairy, buttery and cheesey nuance.

Eucalyptol/1,8-Cineole has the camphor-minty odor of eucalyptus. In fact, it is the main ingredient in oil of eucalyptus. It is also found in other fragrant plants. It is used to increase circulation, and reduce pain and swelling when applied topically. Cineole readily crosses the blood/brain barrier, possibly helping other cannabinoids to cross more readily as well. The inhalation of cineole increases cerebral blood flow and enhances cortical activity. The effects of cineole, when combined with oral or smoked Cannabis, are reported as being very uplifting, noticeably increasing mental and physical energy. This terpene, and others like it, may be responsible for the reported difference in effect between indica and sativa strains with a similar cannabinoid profile. Cineole is most likely the stimulating and thought provoking part of the cannabis smoke.

α-Eudesmol has a sweet, woody odor. It’s been shown to protect against brain injury after focal ischemia in rats. α-Eudesmol shows signs that it may become useful for the treatment of migraines.

β-Eudesmol has a sweet, green, woody, yuzu-like aroma. It has shown some antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities.

γ-Eudesmol has a waxy, sweet, woody, floral odor. γ-Eudesmol presents cytotoxic effect to cancer cells.

All Eudesmol isomers displayed cytotoxicity to different tumour cell lines.

Eugenol causes the aromatic smell typical of cloves. It is sometimes called clove oil because it is the active element in cloves. Eugenol is found in insect attractants as well as UV absorbers. It is an antioxidant, and When mixed with zinc oxide, eugenol is a common base for temporary fillings. This is the reason all dental offices smell the same.

Farnesol has a weak, mild, fresh, sweet, floral, linden tree odor. It is used as an agent in cosmetics, flavors and fragrances. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative effects and it has been suggested to function as a chemopreventative and antitumor agent with some analgesic potential. Farnesol is present in many essential oils such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, lemon grass, tuberose, rose, musk, balsam and tolu. It is used in perfumery to emphasize the odors of sweet floral perfumes. It is also a natural pesticide for mites and is a pheromone for several other insects.

β-Fenchol has a camphorous, borneol, piney, woody, dry, sweet, lemon scent. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. It is an antioxidant and antimicrobial with limited antifungal properties.

Fenchone has a camphorous, thuja, cedarleaf, herbal, earthy, woody aroma. As an additive, its flavor has been described as cooling, camphoreous, sweet and minty with a musty, earthy nuance.

Geraniol has a medium strength, floral, sweet, rosey, fruity odor with citrus to citronella-like odor nuances. Its flavor is floral, rosy, waxy and perfumey with a fruity peach-like nuance. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. It is used in flavors such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry. It is also used for cosmetic Uses as a perfuming agent. Geraniol is a natural antioxidant. It inhibits DNA synthesis. In one study, Geraniol was shown to suppress pancreatic tumor growth.

Geranyl Acetate has a very strong, floral aroma with a fruity twist. It is found in a variety of natural oils from plants such as citronella, lemon grass, sassafras, rose, and many others. It exhibits strong antimicrobial properties.

Germacrene B has a potent odor ranging from spicy, warm and earthy to the sweet aroma of expressed lime oil. It is not used in food or fragrances.

Germacrene D has strong, oily, spicy, green woody, floral scent compounds. It is used in bakery goods, confections, and edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet.

Germacrenes are produced in a number of plant species for their antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, though they also play a role as insect pheromones. The essential oil of the red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum) is characterized by its high contents of germacrene.

Guaia-1(10),11-diene has an elegant and sweet woody aroma. It is used as a fragrance for a wide range of products from food additives, tobacco flavorings and general cosmetics, to room odorizers.

Guaiacol has a powerful, smoke-like, phenolic, spicey, woody somewhat medicinal odor. It has a sweet, powdery, musty, vanilla, floral, almond flavor. It is used chiefly as an expectorant, but is also used as a local anesthetic, an antiseptic and an intestinal disinfectant. Guaiacol is a precursor to various flavorants, such as eugenol and vanillin.

α-Guaiene has a medium strength, sweet, earthy, woody, balsamic, peppery aroma. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent in bakery items, cereals and cereal products, including flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, and edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet. α-Guaiene imparts earthy, spicy aromas and tastes. α-Guaiene also shows anti-inflammatory properties.

α-Gurjunene has a slight, woody, balsamic odor. It is used in cosmetics and fragrances. It has shown to be a antimicrobial as well as an antibacterial agent.

Hexanaldehyde has a very powerful, penetrating, fatty green, freshly cut grassy odor. It is also used in the flavor industry to produce fruity flavors that are green woody, vegetative, apple, grassy, citrus and orange with fresh lingering aftertastes.

Hexanoic Acid has a pungent, oily, acrid, sour, fatty, sweaty, rancid cheese odor. It is used as a flavoring as well as in cosmetics. It is a fatty acid found naturally in various animal fats and oils. It is one of the chemicals that give the decomposing fleshy seed coat of the ginkgo its characteristic unpleasant odor.

α-Humulene (obsolete name: α-Caryophyllene) has an aroma that has been described as bitter, medium woody, and hoppy. α-Humulene has shown anti-inflammatory properties. Humulene is one of the essential oils made in the flowering cone of the hops plant Humulus lupulus. The concentration of humulene varies among different varieties of the plant, but can be up to 40% of the essential oil of noble hops.

β-Ionol has a sweet, woody, herbal, fruity, floral, violet, tropical and berry aroma. As a flavoring it is a floral, violet-like, fruity, woody, berry flavor with powdery nuances.

β-Ionone has a flowery, violet, raspberry odor. It is a significant contributor to the aroma of roses, despite its relatively low concentration, and is an important fragrance chemical used in perfumes. β-ionone, derived from grape carotenoids, plays an important role in the flavor of some red wines. The flavor imparted to wine by β-ionone is a component of fruity / floral character of some of the most sought-after red wines of Bordeaux, Burgundy and the Rhone Valley. β-Ionone demonstrates potent anticancer activity as well as antifungal properties.

Ipsdienol has a balsamic, piney aroma. It is a major component of the floral fragrance of several species of orchids. Ipsdienol is also one of the major aggregation pheromones of the bark beetle in which it is believed to be a mating attractant.

Isoamyl Alcohol has a pungent, fermented type, fusel, alcoholic, etherial cognac aroma with fruity, banana and molasses notes. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. Its flavor is a fusel, fermented, fruity, banana, etherial and cognac.

Isoamyl Formate has a medium strength, ethereal, vinous, dry, earthy, fruity, green, plum, black currant aroma. As a flavoring it has a sharp, green, apple and fruity flavor with winey, fatty notes.

Isoborneol has a camphoraceous, sweet & musty, India ink-like aroma. It has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and some limited antimicrobial properties. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent for beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, and chewing gum.

Isomyrcenol has a fresh, floral, lime-like odor. Isomyrcenol is used in the chemical communication systems of the Spruce bark beetle, the Pinyon pine beetle and the Double-spined bark beetle.

Isopulegol has a medium strength odor that is minty, cooling and bitter-sweet medicinal. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent in candies and chewing gum. It is found in the hesperozygis rhododon shrub, as well as in eucalyptus citriodora. It is also commonly used in cosmetics.

Isovaleric Acid has a strong, pungent, sour, stinky feet, sweaty cheese smell. It is a major component of the cause of unpleasant foot odor. However, its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely in perfumery. Used as a flavoring it is cheesey, dairy, sweet creamy, fermented, waxy and berry. It has shown effectiveness as an anticonvulsant and antidepressant.

Limonene is found in high amounts in cannabis resin as well as tropical fruit rinds and many other fruits and flowers. Everyone is familiar with the odor of citrus resins. They explode into the air when a fruit is peeled. The exact odor is determined by the structure of the terpene. Plants use Limonene to repulse predators. For instance, flies have a group of receptors similar in function to the taste buds on our tongues. One of them detects noxious chemicals, and responds to Limonene as if it were toxic. This is hard wired into the flies brain. Limonene is a potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer agent. Limonene has been used clinically to dissolve gallstones, improve mood and relieve heartburn and gastrointestinal reflux. Limonene has been shown to destroy breast-cancer cells in lab experiments, and its powerful antimicrobial action can kill pathogenic bacteria. Limonene sprays are also used to treat depression.
Limonene is the second, third or fourth most prevalent terpene in almost all cannabis resins and it is a precursor to the synthesis of other cannabinoids. Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly appears in the bloodstream. Since Limonene is known to affect the permeability of the cell membranes, it allows more THC to reach brain cells and increases the absorption of other terpenes. Limonene’s design facilitates a direct response by quickly permeating the blood-brain barrier. The result is increased systolic blood pressure. One test, reported subjective alertness and restlessness.

Linalool has a floral scent reminiscent of spring flowers such as lily of the valley, but with spicy overtones. It is a terpenoid prominent in lavender. It is refined from lavender, neroli, and other essential oils. Humans can detect its odor at rates as low as one part per million in the air.
Linalool is being tested now for treatment of several types of cancer. It is also a component of several sedating essential oils including lavender oil which is believed to possess antianxiety and sedative properties. In tests on humans who inhaled it, it caused severe sedation. In tests on lab rats it reduced their activity by almost 75%. In addition to being a compound that counters anxiety and mediates stress, linalool is a strong anticonvulsant, and it also amplifies serotonin-receptor transmission, conferring an antidepressant effect. Applied topically, linalool can heal acne and skin burns without scarring.
Strains that are high in linalool may be particularly beneficial for patients who experience insomnia due to their sedating effects.

γ-Linolenic Acid has the slight, light aroma of vegetable oil. This is because it is a unsaturated fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils. It is sold as a dietary and health supplement, although there is very limited evidence of any effectiveness, and only as a slight anti-inflammatory and blood thinning agent.

Longifolene has a medium strength, sweet, woody, rosey, medical, fir needle odor. Longifolene is also one of two most abundant aroma constituents of lapsang souchong tea, because the tea is smoked over pine fires. The Norway spruce produces longifolene as it’s main product.

α-Longipinene has a pine aromatic odor. The Norway spruce produces high levels of α-Longipinene secondary to longifolene as it’s main product.

Menthol has a very strong, cooling, mentholic, minty, peppermint aroma and flavor. It is obtained from cornmint, peppermint or other mint oils. Menthol has local anesthetic and counter-irritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist. Menthol is responsible for the well-known cooling sensation it provokes when inhaled, eaten, or applied to the skin. In this sense, it is similar to capsaicin, the chemical responsible for the spiciness of hot chilis (which stimulates heat sensors, also without causing an actual change in temperature).

3-Mercapto-2-Methylpentanal has a very heavy, sulfurous, savory, alliaceous, garlic odor with tropical fruit and cultured dairy nuances. As a flavoring, it has a sulfureous, alliaceous, savory flavor with cooked onion and sauteed garlic notes and tropical fruit nuances of mango and passionfruit.

3-Mercapto-2-Methylpentanol has a very strong, sulfurous, onion type aroma. It is used in seasonings as a food additive, but not used as a fragrance. It is recommended to be smelled in a 0.10 % solution or less due to its strength.

Mercaptan is the main odor constituent added to assist in the detection of natural gas (which in pure form is odorless), and the “smell of natural gas” is due to the smell of the mercaptan thiol used as the odorant.

β-Mercaptoethanol Is an extremely strong and persistent aroma that has all the basic rotten-egg sulfur-stink notes. It is an extremely intestinal and skunk-like odor.

Mercaptoacetic Acid has an ugly, sharp, acrid, skunk smell with plenty of endurance.

Allyl Mercaptan has a high strength, sulfurous and alliaceous, sauteed onion and garlic aroma with roasted, grilled and charred meaty nuances. It is used as a flavor additive and is described as alliaceous onion, garlic and leek with meaty bouillon savory nuances.

Benzyl Mercaptan has a high strength, sharp, alliaceous, sulfuraceous, onion, garlic, horseradish aroma with mint and coffee notes. It is a flavoring and is described as a green, leek, horseradish, cabbage, tomato and coffee flavor.

Butyl Mercaptan has an extremely strong, fetid, extremely foul-smelling odor, commonly described as “skunk” odor. It is structurally similar to several major components of a skunk’s defensive spray but is not present in the spray itself. The scent of butyl mercaptan is so strong that the human nose can easily detect it in the air at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. Used as a flavor additive, it has a sulfureous, vegetative, savory meaty, garlic and onion taste.

Ethyl Mercaptan has a high strength, sulfurous, skunky odor with a slight fruity note.

Ethylene Mercaptan has a very high strength, sulfurous, skunky odor with a slight meaty note. It is so strong, it is recommend smelling it in a 0.01 % solution or less.

Furfuryl Mercaptan has a very strong, oily, fatty, roasted coffee, sulfurous skunky odor with a burnt match note. Used in flavorings, it is described as a sulfurous, roasted coffee, burnt match-like, rubbery, and slightly nutty flavor with eggy and savory meaty nuances.

Methyl Mercaptan has an extremely strong, sulfurous, decomposing cabbage, skunky aroma. It is used in flavorings and is described as sulfurous, alliaceous and creamy with a surface-ripened cheese topnote and a clean savory meaty depth.

Phenyl Mercaptan has a high strength, meaty, repulsive, penetrating, garlic, sulfuraceous odor with a rubbery, allicious backnote. Used in flavorings it is described as a meaty, phenolic taste with a burnt rubber sulfureous nuance.

Propyl Mercaptan has a high strength, alliaceous, natural gas, sweet onion, cabbage odor.

Thenyl Mercaptan has a high strength, roast coffee, fishy aroma. It is used as a flavoring agent where it has the flavor of coffee.

The spray of skunks consists mainly of low-molecular-weight Mercaptan thiols and their derivatives.

Methylbutenol has a very strong, suffocating, malty herb aroma. It is released in high concentrations from lodgepole pine trees.

Methyl Salicylate has a strong, distinct wintergreen aroma. Its flavor is sweet, salicylate and root beer like with aromatic and balsamic nuances. It is used as a fragrance, in foods and beverages, and in liniments where it is commonly used as a topical medicine for muscle, joint or soft tissue pain and inflammation.

Methyl-2-Methylvalerate has medium strength, fruity, sweet, berry, pineapple, apple, banana, green melon and tropical aromas. Used as a flavor additive in food, its taste is described as fruity, green apple, grape, bubble gum and pineapple-like.

3-Methyl-1-Butanol has an aroma that is slightly onion with gasoline, kerosene, rubber or burnt oil overtones.

γ-Muurolene has a medium strength, oily, woody type, herbal spice aroma. It is used in the chemical communication system of the Lucerne seed wasp and the European grapevine moth.

Nepetalactone has a valerian odor that is generally considered unpleasant by humans. It has a compound that resembles a component of a female cat urine odorant thought to mimic sex communication pheromones. It is one of the main attractants and stimulants in catnip which, when inhaled, incites wild play behavior in many cats (i.e., gets them ‘stoned’). It has also been shown to be an active repellent for cockroaches, and recent tests on yellow fever mosquitoes showed that it was 10 times more of an effective repellent than DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide), the most popular synthetic insect repellent.

Nerolidol has a mild, delicate odor that is floral, apple, rose, green and citrus-like with woody, waxy nuances. It can be found in ginger, niaouli and citronella. It is present as a low-level component in orange and other citrus peels. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. Its flavor has been described as green, floral and woody with fruity-citrus and melon nuances. It has antifungal, antileishmaniasis and antimalarial properties. It is also known to produce a sedative effect.

Nerol has a strong, fresh, wet seashore to sweet rose odor. It is a constituent of attar of roses, oil of orange blossoms and oil of lavender. It is used as a fragrance in cosmetics and as a flavor agent. Its flavor has been described as lemon, bitter, green and fruity with a terpy nuance.

Nonanaldehyde has a high strength, soapy, axy, aldehydic, citrus odor with a fresh, slightly green, lemon peel like nuance, and a cucumber fattiness. It is a component of perfumes, although it also occurs in several natural oils. Used in flavorings, its taste is an effervescent, aldehydic, citrus, cucumber and melon rindy with raw potato and oily nutty and coconut like nuances. It has been identified as a compound that attracts mosquitoes.

Nonanoic Acid has a high strength, unpleasant, racid, waxy, dirty and cheesy aroma with a cultured dairy nuance. Used as a cosmetic a fragrance and a flavor agent, its flavor is fatty, waxy and cheesy with a mild, sweet creamy background.

α-Ocimene has a medium strength, fruity, floral aroma with a wet cloth note. It is contributor to green odor of unripe mango and of mango ginger (Curcuma amada). It is used in oriental pickles.

β-Ocimene has a medium strength, tropical, green, terpy and woody odor with vegetable nuances. It is used as a flavoring agent where it has a green, tropical, woody flavor with floral and vegetable nuances. It is a flavor and fragrance additive as well as a common component in many essential oils.

β-cis-Ocimene has a medium strength, warm, floral, herbal, sweet, citrus-like aroma. It is a component of the chemical communication system of the tea weevil and cotton bollworm. It has shown some antioxidative properties.

β-trans-Ocimene has a mild, herbaceous, citrusy sweet, orange to lemon aroma. It is used in the chemical communication system of boxelders, a few beetles, and the Phytoseiulus Persimilis predatory mite.

Octanal has a very strong aldehydic waxy citrus green orange peel nuance. As a flavoring it is aldehyde and green with a peely, citrus, orange note.

Octanoic Acid has a very strong, musty, rancid, penetrating, fatty, waxy, oily, cheesy, sweat-like odor that is repulsive to most people. It is used as a cosmetic surfactant and as a flavoring agent for processed cheeses.

α-Phellandrene has a medium strength, terpenic, citrus, herbal, slightly green, black pepper-like odor. It is a flavor additive where it is described as a terpenic, citrus lime with a fresh green note.

β-Phellandrene has a medium strength, peppery-minty and slightly citrusy odor with a slight minty-terpentine note.

Phenylacetaldehyde has a very powerful and penetrating pungent honey-like sweet and green floral odor of passion fruit. It is found in buckwheat, chocolate and many other foods and flowers. As an additive its flavor is a honey, sweet, floral, chocolate and cocoa, with a spicy nuance. It has shown some antibiotic and antiasthmatic activity.

Phenylethanethiol has the high strength odor of rubber.

Phytol has a mild, light floral, balsamic, green jasmin, green tea type of aroma. It’s been shown to prevent Vitamin A teratogenesis.

α-Pinene is the familiar odor associated with pine trees and their resins. It is the major component in turpentine and is found in many other plant essential oils in noticeable amounts including rosemary, sage, eucalyptus and many others. Pinene is used medically as an expectorant, and topical antiseptic. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it acts as a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, it inhibits activity of a chemical that destroys an information transfer molecule. This results in better memory. Pinene also promotes alertness and memory retention. Largely due to the presence of pinene, rosemary and sage are both considered “memory plants.” Concoctions made from their leaves have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine to retain and restore memory. It is also a bronchodilator. A pharmacokinetics study of inhaled α-pinene in humans demonstrated 60% uptake, and a relative bronchodilation effect. The smoke seems to expand in your lungs and the high comes on very quickly since a high percentage of the substance will pass into the bloodstream and brain. It also increases focus, self satisfaction and energy, which generally counteracts with the presence of Terpineol. α-Pinene has inhibited acetylcholinesterase suggesting utility in the clinical treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

β-Pinene has a woody-green pine-like smell. β-Pinene is one of the most abundant compounds released by forest trees. It is one of the two isomers of pinene (The other being α-Pinene) and it shares similar properties.

Propanethiol has a high strength, alliaceous odor of cabbage, sweet onion and natural gas. It belongs to the group of thiols. It is colorless with a strong, offensive odor.

Pulegone has a minty-camphor odor and flavor that is used in the candy industry. It is implicated in liver damage in very high dosages. Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Thus, it stops the action of the protein that destroys acetylcholine, which is used by the brain to store memories. It may counteract THC’s activity, which leads to low acetylcholine levels. The result is that you would forget more on THC alone than you would on THC accompanied by Pulegone.

Sabinene has a medium strength, warm, oily-peppery, woody, herbaceous and spicy pine odor with citrus notes. In flavoring it is oily, citrus and tropical fruity. It is found in oak trees, tea tree oil, black pepper and is a major constituent of carrot seed oil.

Sabinene Hydrate has a medium strength, herbal, cooling, minty, eucalyptol, green and terpy odor with a spicy nuance. It is used as a flavor additive and has a cool, minty, camphoreous, woody green, and oily flavor. It is also used in fragrances and cosmetics.

cis-Sabinene Hydrate has a medium strength balsamic odor.

trans-Sabinene Hydrate has a medium strength, more woody, balsamic odor.

Safranal is the component primarily responsible for the aroma of saffron. Its flavor is a woody, medicinal, phenolic, spicy and camphoreous with a fruity herbal nuance. Safranal is an effective anticonvulsant an agonist and it exhibits high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as well as cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. It has also been shown to have antidepressant properties.

α-Selinene has the distinct odor of amber. It is one of the principal components of the oil from celery seeds. It has shown analgesic antioxidant and antifungal activity with antimicrobial potential.

α-Sinensal has a medium strength, citrus orange, mandarin aroma. Its flavor is an orange, waxy and juicy citrus with a bitter peel nuance.

β-Sinensal has a medium strength, sweet, fresh, waxy, citrus, orange juicy odor. It is mainly used in fragrances.

β-Sitosterol has a charastic waxy aroma. It is a plant sterol with a chemical structure similar to that of cholesterol. It is found in pecans, avocados, pumpkin seeds, cashews, corn oils, and soybeans. It has shown anti-inflammatory properties.

α-Terpineol has a lilac, citrus or apple blossom to lime odor. It is used extensively in the perfume industry. Terpineol however, is often found in cannabis with high pinene levels. Therefore, its odor is very often masked by the pungent aromas of pinene. It is a minor constituent of many plant essential oils. It is also used in soaps for fragrance. It reduces the capability for movement by 45% in lab rat tests. It was also shown to be deeply sedating upon inhalation. This may partially account for the couchlock effects of some cannabis although it is not usually associated with body highs.

Terpineol-4-ol has a pleasantly herbaceous, peppery, woody odor and is used in commercial fragrances. Terpineol-4-ol is used in fragrances for spice types. It is considered the primary active ingredient of tea tree oil. It is the compound of highest concentration in the essential oil of nutmeg. It also occurs in oil of cypress, juniper berry, Ceylon cardamom, marjoram, thyme, and a few others. It has been shown to act as an AChE inhibitor and as an antibiotic.

α-Terpinene has a refreshing, lemony-citrus aroma. It has been isolated from cardamom and marjoram oils.

γ-Terpinene has a herbaceous, citrusy sweet aroma. It is commercially extracted from tea tree oil. γ-Terpinene shows antimicrobial properties against various human pathogens. It has also been studied for it’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities.

Terpinolene has a medium strength, herbal aroma that has been described as fresh, woody, sweet and piney with a hint of citrus. Its flavor is a sweet, woody, terpy, lemon and lime-like with a slight herbal and floral nuance. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. Its use in fragrances in the USA alone exceeds 50,000 lb/yr. Terpinolene is used in soap, detergent, creams, lotions, and perfume.

Thiophenol is the extremely potent, extremely persistant, foul-smelling, pure essence of burning rubber.

Thymol has the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme. It is found in oil of thyme, and extracted from Thymus vulgaris (common thyme) and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant, aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol is a natural monoterpene phenol derivative of Cymene.

α-Tocopherol has a very bland, slight, vegetable oil-like odor. α-Tocopherol is the most active component of the vitamin E complex, and this organic substance is the most powerful antioxidant in the lipid phase of the human body. α-Tocopherol acts very effectively to deactivate free radicals and stop chain reactions before they can run away.

Tonka Undecanone has a medium strength, sweet, spicy, balsamic, tonka woody tobacco green aroma.

Undecanal has an intensely soapy, aldehydic, waxy and slightly effervescent orangey citrus-like odor with a watermelon, pineapple and cilantro background. As an additive, its flavor is Waxy, aldehydic and soapy with a citrus note and slight laundry detergent nuance. Undecanal is a common component of perfumes.

Valeraldehyde has a fermented type, diffusive, bready, fruity odor with berry nuances. Used as a flavoring agent, its flavor is a winey, fermented, bready, cocoa with chocolate notes.

Verdoxan has a medium strength odor of earthy, fruity, green, herbal, sawen old wood. It is used in fragrances and cosmetics.

α-Ylangene has a spicy, fruity aroma. It is a natural substance often found in wine and is emitted by some plants. It has shown both antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

The main differences between terpene profiles of evaluated strains belonging to the two principal biotypes are:

‘mostly indica’ strains were characterized by dominancy of β-myrcene, present in high relative contents, with limonene or α-pinene as second most abundant terpenoid

‘mostly sativa’ strains were characterized by more complex terpene profiles, with some strains having α-terpinolene or α-pinene as dominant terpenoid, and some strains having β-myrcene as dominant terpenoid with α-terpinolene or trans-β-ocimene as second most abundant terpenoid.

Breeding for specific terpenoids in plants is a fascinating research topic. In fact, the various biological activities of these compounds make the analysis of terpenoids a valuable tool for improving a considerable number of traits in cultivars of Cannabis.
Testing for these terpines is like making a recipe-book for a Chef. They tell you what the ingredients are in the dish, and in which quantities.

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The “Entourage effect” of Cannabis.
The clinical contribution of cannabinoids different than THC, terpenoids and flavonoids to clinical cannabis effects has been espoused as an “entourage effect” (Mechoulam and Ben-Shabat 1999). While THC remains the most psychoactive compound found in Cannabis, all other substances present in the plant (in particular cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids) also have unique properties that will ultimately influence the effects that Cannabis has on us.

Many times patients using Cannabis as medicine have reported that a specific plant genetic seems to have better therapeutic properties on them than other ones available. When compared, those Cannabis varieties had similar cannabinoid profile (content of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD). So if the difference is not in the cannabinoid content, it must lie in the “entourage” of other substances present in the plant in order to explain the difference perceived by various patients.

Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Entourage Effects
Ethan Russo MD
British Journal of Pharmacology
http://cannabisclinicians.org/wp-con…ffect-2011.pdf

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids
Mahmoud A. ElSohly
School of Pharmacy at the University of Mississippi
http://www.alchimiaweb.com/blogfr/wp…d-Medicine.zip

Terpenoids for medicine
Justin Fischedick
Leiden University
https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bit…df?sequence=23

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L. (IV): cannabinoid-free plants
E. P. M. de Meijer, K. M. Hammond, A. Sutton
http://www.csatc.org/linksofinterest/deMeijer20092.pdf

Talking Terpenes | High Times – Martin Lee
www.hightimes.com/read/talking-terpenes

How Does Your Endocannabinoid System Impact Your Brain’s Response to Social Interaction?

Does your endocannabinoid system impact social behavior? A recent study from the University California-Irvine examines how the ECS may interact with the hormone oxytocin to positively impact the rewards associated with social interaction.

EndocannabinoidSystemSocialInteraction

What is Oxytocin?

For today’s Science 101 lesson, let’s have a brief refresher on what exactly oxytocin is. Mammals make a key neuro-hormone called oxytocin that’s produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland of the brain/central nervous system.

Oxytocin plays a role in intimacy, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the socially rewarding effects of hugging, trust related behaviors, pleasant touch, emotions of love, and social interaction. In fact, a study published in 2012 out of Singapore demonstrated that individuals with more extreme levels of oxytocin in the blood were likely to be more trusting than those with lower levels.

 

The Endocannabinoid System and Its Physiological Impact

One of the most common experiences described by cannabis users include enhanced social interactions, interpersonal communication, and social bonding. This clear overlap in cannabis consumption and pro-social behavior has led scientists to begin exploring the potential link between endocannabinoid signaling and oxytocin.

To briefly review, the endocannabinoid system is a group of specialized fatty acid-based signaling chemicals (think “keys”), their receptors (think “locks”), and the metabolic enzymes that produce and break them down. These endocannabinoid chemical signals act on similar brain cell receptors as the active compounds found in cannabis – cannabidiol (CBD), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Don’t confuse endocannabinoids with phytocannabinoids – the latter, of which well over 90 have been found to exist, are chemical plant derivatives (found mostly within cannabis species) such as CBD and THC that interact with the endocannabinoid system of hormones, receptors, and enzymes. Endocannabinoids are known to influence a variety of physiological systems, including appetite, pain/sensation and inflammation, body temperature regulation, intra-ocular pressure, muscle control, energy balance, metabolism, sleep health, stress responses, motivation/reward, memory, and mood, the latter of which brings us to the UC-Irvine study. What link exists, if any, between the ECS and social behaviors?

 

The Relationship Between the ECS and Sociability

According to UC-Irvine’s recent pre-clinical research study, there is a strong link between the “love” and “trust” hormone oxytocin and the naturally occurring endocannabinoid “bliss” and “delight” molecule known as anadamide. This is the first study of its kind to show a direct link in the brain of mice between these systems.

The animal study set out to measure levels of anadamide in the brain of mice that had either been allowed normal social interaction with other mice or kept in isolation. Researchers found that in mice with social interaction, the levels of anadamide increased in an area of the brain that’s critical for motivation, pleasure, and reward. When the mice were given drugs that enhanced anadamide signaling, their pleasure associated with socialization increased. However, when the cannabinoid receptors were blocked, the mice were prevented from experiencing the rewards of social interactions. This part of the experiment confirmed the importance of anadamide and the endocannabinoid system to social behaviors.

The second part of the study reinforced oxytocin’s role in social bonding and the pleasure derived from social interactions in the same mice when they stimulated oxytocin-releasing brain cells. Researchers found that oxytocin also enhanced the mobilization and production of anadamide within the same area of the brain responsible for motivation and reward.

Not surprisingly, when oxytocin receptors were blocked, it also stopped the normal pleasure and reward sensation obtained by social interactions. Amazingly, when anadamide was prevented from being degraded in this area of the brain, it completely offset the loss of social reward and pleasure observed when blocking the oxytocin receptor.

So what does this all mean? The study and data indicate that social reward and the effects of the “love, trust, and social hormone” oxytocin is driven by anadamide and the endocannabinoid system as an underlying keystone to optimizing social behavior. It’s an exciting revelation, as the underlying dependence of social reward on the endocannabinoid system provides a potential therapeutic strategy in the future to help individuals with social dysfunction, anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental, and autism spectrum disorders.

References:

Zhong S, Monakhov M, Mok HP, et al. U-Shaped Relation between Plasma Oxytocin Levels and Behavior in the Trust Game. Slattery DA, ed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(12):e51095.

Don Wei, DaYeon Lee, Conor D. Cox, Carley A. Karsten, Olga Peñagarikano, Daniel H. Geschwind, Christine M. Gall, and Daniele Piomelli Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward PNAS 2015;112 (45):14084-14089.

 

Fuente: Leafly

Legalizado el acceso limitado a los medicamentos derivados del cannabis

El Gobierno croata ha legalizado el uso terapéutico del cannabis pudiendo ser recetado a pacientes con enfermedades como esclerosis múltiple, cáncer, epilepsia o SIDA. La prensa croata informa que por ahora no se ofrecerá en las farmacias, sino a través de ocho compañías farmacéuticas.

Según la normativa los médicos podrán prescribir a sus enfermos fármacos, infusiones y ungüentos que contengan THC, mientras que cada paciente podrá recibir una cantidad muy limitada, de hasta 750 mg de THC al mes. El Ministerio de Salud advierte que el cannabis no cura ninguna de las patologías mencionadas pero puede ser utilizado para aliviar el dolor y el sufrimiento que resulta de ciertas enfermedades crónicas graves, y que el cultivo de cannabis en espacios personales seguirá siendo ilegal.

 

Fuente: FreepressJournal